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Years and Volumes

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Articles from this Volume

Review Article

Matthew W Klinker and Steven K Lundy

Suppression of the immune system after the resolution of infection or inflammation is an important process that limits immunemediated pathogenesis and autoimmunity. Several mechanisms of immune suppression have received a great deal of attention in the past three decades. These include mechanisms related to suppressive cytokines, interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, produced by regulatory cells, and mechanisms related to apoptosis mediated by death ligands, Fas ligand (FasL) and tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), expressed by killer or cytotoxic cells. Despite many lines of evidence supporting an important role for B lymphocytes as both regulatory and killer cells in many inflammatory settings, relatively little attention has been given to understanding the biology of these cells, their relative importance or their usefulness as therapeutic targets. This review is intended to give an overview of the major mechanisms of immunosuppression used by B lymphocytes during both normal and inflammatory contexts. The more recent discoveries of expression of granzyme B, programmed death 1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) and regulatory antibody production by B cells as well as the interactions of regulatory and killer B cells with regulatory T cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells and other cell populations are discussed. In addition, new evidence on the basis of independent characterizations of regulatory and killer CD5+ B cells point toward the concept of a multipotent suppressor B cell with seemingly high therapeutic potential.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jan 14, 2012 12:00 AM CST
Review Article

Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas, Roman Teimer, and Robert Bockermann

Common dietary components including vitamins A and D, omega-3 and probiotics are now widely accepted to be essential to protect against many diseases with an inflammatory nature. On the other hand, high-fat diets are documented to exert multiple deleterious effects, including fatty liver diseases. Here we discuss the effect of dietary components on regulatory T cell (Treg) homeostasis, a central element of the immune system to prevent chronic tissue inflammation. Accordingly, evidence on the impact of dietary components on diseases in which Tregs play an influential role will be discussed. We will review chronic tissue-specific autoimmune and inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and allergies among chronic diseases where dietary factors could have a direct influence via modulation of Tregs homeostasis and functions.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jan 13, 2012 12:00 AM CST
Review Article

Guo-Rui Dou, Lin Wang, Yu-Sheng Wang, and Hua Han


Ocular angiogenesis, characterized by the formation of new blood vessels in the avascular area in eyes, is a highly coordinated process involved in retinal vasculature formation and several ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. This process is orchestrated by complicated cellular interactions and vascular growth factors, during which endothelial cells acquire heterogeneous phenotypes and distinct cellular destinations. To date, while the vascular endothelial growth factor has been identified as the most critical angiogenic agent with a remarkable therapeutic value, the Notch signaling pathway appears to be a similarly important regulator in several angiogenic steps. Recent progress has highlighted the involvement, mechanisms and therapeutic potential of Notch signaling in retinal vasculature development and pathological angiogenesis-related eye disorders, which may cause irreversible blindness.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jan 12, 2012 12:00 AM CST
Eugenia Tsakou, Andreas Agathagelidis, Myriam Boudjoghra, Thorsten Raff, Antonis Dagklis, Maria Chatzouli, Tatjana Smilevska, George Bourikas, Helene Merle-Beral, Eleni Manioudaki-Kavallieratou, Achilles Anagnostopoulos, Monika Brü̈ggemann, Frederic Davi, Kostas Stamatopoulos, and Chrysoula Belessi

The frequent occurrence of stereotyped heavy complementarity-determining region 3 (VH CDR3) sequences among unrelated cases with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is widely taken as evidence for antigen selection. Stereotyped VH CDR3 sequences are often defined by the selective association of certain immunoglobulin heavy diversity (IGHD) genes in specific reading frames with certain immunoglobulin heavy joining (IGHJ ) genes. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying VH CDR3 restrictions and also determine the developmental stage when restrictions in VH CDR3 are imposed, we analyzed partial IGHDIGHJ rearrangements (D-J) in 829 CLL cases and compared the productively rearranged D-J joints (that is, in-frame junctions without junctional stop codons) to (a) the productive immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV )-IGHD-IGHJ rearrangements (V-D-J) from the same cases and (b) 174 D-J rearrangements from 160 precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases (pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL]). Partial D-J rearrangements were detected in 272/829 CLL cases (32.8%). Sequence analysis was feasible in 238 of 272 D-J rearrangements; 198 of 238 (83.2%) were productively rearranged. The D-J joints in CLL did not differ significantly from those in pre-B ALL, except for higher frequency of the IGHD7-27 and IGHJ6 genes in the latter. Among CLL carrying productively rearranged D-J, comparison of the IGHD gene repertoire in productive V-D-J versus D-J revealed the following: (a) overuse of IGHD reading frames encoding hydrophilic peptides among V-D-J and (b) selection of the IGHD3-3 and IGHD6-19 genes in V-D-J junctions. These results document that the IGHD and IGHJ gene biases in the CLL expressed VH CDR3 repertoire are not stochastic but are directed by selection operating at the immunoglobulin protein level.

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Supplementary data PDF

 

Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jan 11, 2012 12:00 AM CST
Wilfried Posch, Stefan Piper, Thomas Lindhorst, Birgit Werner, Adam Fletcher, Holger Bock,
Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Heribert Stoiber, and Doris Wilflingseder


Although rapidly becoming a valuable tool for gene silencing, regulation or editing in vitro, the direct transfer of small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs) into cells is still an unsolved problem for in vivo applications. For the first time, we show that specific modifications of antisense oligomers allow autonomous passage into cell lines and primary cells without further adjuvant or coupling to a cell-penetrating peptide. For this reason, we termed the specifically modified oligonucleotides "cell membrane–crossing oligomers" (CMCOs). CMCOs targeted to various conserved regions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 were tested and compared with nontargeting CMCOs. Analyses of uninfected and infected cells incubated with labeled CMCOs revealed that the compounds were enriched in infected cells and some of the tested CMCOs exhibited a potent antiviral effect. Finally, the CMCOs did not exert any cytotoxicity and did not inhibit proliferation of the cells. In vitro, our CMCOs are promising candidates as biologically active anti-HIV reagents for future in vivo applications.

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Supplementary data PDF

Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jan 10, 2012 12:00 AM CST
Eric Guérin, Wolfgang Raffelsberger, Erwan Pencreach, Armin Maier, Agnès Neuville,
Anne Schneider, Philippe Bachellier, Serge Rohr, Amélie Petitprez, Olivier Poch, Dino Moras,
Pierre Oudet, Annette K Larsen, Marie-Pierre Gaub, and Dominique Guenot


Topoisomerase I is a privileged target for widely used anticancer agents such as irinotecan. Although these drugs are classically considered to be DNA-damaging agents, increasing evidence suggests that they might also influence the tumor environment. This study evaluates in vivo cellular and molecular modifications induced by irinotecan, a topoisomerase I–directed agent, in patient-derived colon tumors subcutaneously implanted in athymic nude mice. Irinotecan was given intraperitoneally at 40 mg/kg five times every 5 d, and expression profiles were evaluated at d 25 in tumors from treated and untreated animals. Unexpectedly, the in vivo antitumor activity of irinotecan was closely linked to a downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A) target genes along with an inhibition of HIF1A protein accumulation. The consequence was a decrease in tumor angiogenesis leading to tumor size stabilization. These results highlight the molecular basis for the antitumor activity of a widely used anticancer agent, and the method used opens the way for mechanistic studies of the in vivo activity of other anticancer therapies.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jan 9, 2012 12:00 AM CST
Takahiro Tsukimura, Ikuo Kawashima, Tadayasu Togawa, Takashi Kodama, Toshihiro Suzuki, Toru Watanabe, Yasunori Chiba, Yoshifumi Jigami, Tomoko Fukushige, Takuro Kanekura, and Hitoshi Sakuraba

To economically produce recombinant human α-galactosidase A (GLA) with a cell culture system that does not require bovine serum, we chose methylotrophic yeast cells with the OCH1 gene, which encodes α-1,6-mannosyltransferase, deleted and overexpressing the Mnn4p (MNN4) gene, which encodes a positive regulator of mannosylphosphate transferase, as a host cell line. The enzyme (yr-hGLA) produced with the gene-manipulated yeast cells has almost the same enzymological parameters as those of the recombinant human GLA produced with cultured human fibroblasts (agalsidase alfa), which is currently used for enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease. However, the basic structures of their sugar chains are quite different. yr-hGLA has a high content of phosphorylated N-glycans and is well incorporated into the kidneys, the main target organ in Fabry disease, where it cleaves the accumulated glycosphingolipids. A glycoprotein production system involving this gene-manipulated yeast cell line will be useful for the development of a new enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease.


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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jan 8, 2012 12:00 AM CST
Gwenny M Fuhler, Robert Brooks, Bonnie Toms, Sonia Iyer, Elizabeth A Gengo, Mi-Young Park,
Matthew Gumbleton, Dennis R Viernes, John D Chisholm, and William G Kerr


Many tumors present with increased activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)–PtdIns(3,4,5)P3–protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling pathway. It has long been thought that the lipid phosphatases SH2 domain-containing inositol-5′-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) and SHIP2 act as tumor suppressors by counteracting with the survival signal induced by this pathway through hydrolysis or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to PtdIns(3,4)P2. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that PtdInd(3,4)P2 is capable of, and essential for, Akt activation, thus suggesting a potential role for SHIP1/2 enzymes as proto-oncogenes. We recently described a novel SHIP1-selective chemical inhibitor (3α-aminocholestane [3AC]) that is capable of killing malignant hematologic cells. In this study, we further investigate the biochemical consequences of 3AC treatment in multiple myeloma (MM) and demonstrate that SHIP1 inhibition arrests MM cell lines in either G0/G1 or G2/M stages of the cell cycle, leading to caspase activation and apoptosis. In addition, we show that in vivo growth of MM cells is blocked by treatment of mice with the SHIP1 inhibitor 3AC. Furthermore, we identify three novel pan-SHIP1/2 inhibitors that efficiently kill MM cells through G2/M arrest, caspase activation and apoptosis induction. Interestingly, in SHIP2-expressing breast cancer cells that lack SHIP1 expression, pan-SHIP1/2 inhibition also reduces viable cell numbers, which can be rescued by addition of exogenous PtdIns(3,4)P2. In conclusion, this study shows that inhibition of SHIP1 and SHIP2 may have broad clinical application in the treatment of multiple tumor types.

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Supplementary data PDF

Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jan 7, 2012 12:00 AM CST
Bernadette R Gochuico, Marjan Huizing, Gretchen A Golas, Charles D Scher, Maria Tsokos, Stacey D Denver, Melissa J Frei-Jones, and William A Gahl

Pulmonary fibrosis develops in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) types 1 and 4. Limited information is available about lung disease in HPS type 2 (HPS-2), which is characterized by abnormal function of the adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex. To define lung disease in HPS-2, one child and two adults with HPS-2 were evaluated at the National Institutes of Health on at least two visits, and another child was evaluated at the University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio. All four subjects with HPS-2 had findings of interstitial lung disease (ILD) on a high-resolution computed tomography scan of the chest. The predominant feature was ground glass opacification. Subject 1, a 14-year-old male, and subject 4, a 4-year-old male, had severe ILD, pulmonary fibrosis, secondary
pulmonary hypertension and recurrent lung infections. Lung biopsy performed at 20 months of age in subject 1 revealed interstitial fibrosis and prominent type II pneumocyte hyperplasia without lamellar body enlargement. Subject 2, a 27-year-old male smoker, had mild ILD. Subject 3, a 22-year-old male nonsmoker and brother of subject 2, had minimal ILD. Severe impairment of gas exchange was found in subjects 1 and 4 and not in subjects 2 or 3. Plasma concentrations of transforming growth factor- β1 and interleukin-17A correlated with severity of HPS-2 ILD. These data show that children and young adults with HPS-2 and functional defects of the AP-3 complex are at risk for ILD and pulmonary fibrosis.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jan 6, 2012 12:00 AM CST
Mohamed N Ahmed, Yinzhong Zhang, Champa Codipilly, Nahla Zaghloul, Dhara Patel, Michael Wolin, and Edmund J Miller
Hypoxia leads to free radical production, which has a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH). We hypothesized that treatment with extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) could ameliorate the development of PH induced by hypoxia. In vitro studies using pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells showed that cells transfected with EC-SOD had significantly less accumulation of xanthine oxidase and reactive oxygen species than nontransfected cells after hypoxia exposure for 24 h. To study the prophylactic role of EC-SOD, adult male wild-type (WT) and transgenic (TG) mice, with lung-specific overexpression of human EC-SOD (hEC-SOD), were exposed to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) 10% for 10 d. After exposure, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular mass (RV/S + LV), pulmonary vascular wall thickness (PVWT) and pulmonary artery contraction/relaxation were assessed. TG mice were protected against PH compared with WT mice with significantly lower RVSP (23.9 ± 1.24 versus 47.2 ± 3.4), RV/S + LV (0.287 ± 0.015 versus 0.335 ± 0.022) and vascular remodeling, indicated by PVWT (14.324 ± 1.107 versus 18.885 ± 1.529). Functional studies using pulmonary arteries isolated from mice indicated that EC-SOD prevents hypoxia-mediated attenuation of nitric oxide–induced relaxation. Therapeutic potential was assessed by exposing WT mice to FiO2 10% for 10 d. Half of the group was transfected with plasmid containing cDNA encoding human EC-SOD. The remaining animals were transfected with empty vector. Both groups were exposed to FiO2 10% for a further 10 d. Transfected mice had significantly reduced RVSP (18.97 ± 1.12 versus 41.3 ± 1.5), RV/S + LV (0.293 ± 0.012 versus 0.372 ± 0.014) and PVWT (12.51 ± 0.72 versus 18.98 ± 1.24). On the basis of these findings, we concluded that overexpression of EC-SOD prevents the development of PH and ameliorates established PH.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jan 5, 2012 12:00 AM CST
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