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Articles from this Volume

Teresa Lambe

Influenza represents a substantial global healthcare burden, with annual epidemics resulting in 3–5 million cases of severe illness with a significant associated mortality. In addition, the risk of a virulent and lethal influenza pandemic has generated widespread and warranted concern. Currently licensed influenza vaccines are limited in their ability to induce efficacious and long-lasting herd immunity. In addition, and as evidenced by the H1N1 pandemic in 2009, there can be a significant delay between the emergence of a pandemic influenza and an effective, antibody-inducing vaccine. There is, therefore, a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection—obviating the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Development of such a vaccine would yield enormous health benefits to society and also greatly reduce the associated global healthcare burden. There are a number of alternative influenza vaccine technologies being assessed both preclinically and clinically. In this review we discuss viral vectored vaccines, either recombinant live-attenuated or replication deficient viruses, which are current lead candidates for inducing efficacious and long-lasting immunity toward influenza viruses. These alternate influenza vaccines offer real promise to deliver viable alternatives to currently deployed vaccines and more importantly may confer long-lasting and universal protection against influenza viral infection.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 26, 2012 2:31 PM CDT
Sangeeta S Chavan, LaQueta K Hudson, Jian Hua Li, Mahendar Ochani, Yael Harris, Nirav B Patel,
David Katz, Joshua A Scheinerman, Valentin A Pavlov, and Kevin J Tracey

Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The pathophysiology of obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. Adipose tissue in obesity is significantly infiltrated by macrophages that secrete cytokines. The mechanisms of interaction between macrophages and adipocytes, leading to macrophage activation and increased cytokine release, remain to be elucidated. We reasoned that an adipocyte-derived factor might stimulate activation of macrophages. We have identified pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) as a mediator of inflammation that is secreted by adipocytes and mediates macrophage activation. Recombinant PEDF activates macrophages to release tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). The PEDF receptor adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is required for PEDF-mediated macrophage activation. Selective inhibition of ATGL on macrophages attenuates PEDF-induced TNF production, and PEDF enhances the phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases. PEDF administration to rats results in increased serum TNF levels, and insulin resistance. Together, these findings suggest that PEDF secreted by adipocytes contributes to the onset and maintenance of chronic inflammation in obesity, and may be a therapeutic target in ameliorating insulin resistance.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 26, 2012 2:29 PM CDT
Karlhans Fru Che, Esaki Muthu Shankar, Sundaram Muthu, Sasan Zandi, Mikael Sigvardsson, Jorma Hinkula, Davorka Messmer, and Marie Larsson

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection enhances the expression of inhibitory molecules on T cells, leading to Tcell impairment. The signaling pathways underlying the regulation of inhibitory molecules and subsequent onset of T-cell impairment remain elusive. We showed that both autologous and allogeneic T cells exposed to HIV-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) upregulated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4), tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), lymphocyte-activation gene-3 (LAG3), T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), CD160 and certain suppression-associated transcription factors, such as B-lymphocyte induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP-1), deltex homolog 1 protein (DTX1) and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), leading to T-cell suppression. This induction was regulated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (P38MAPK/STAT3) pathways, because their blockade significantly abrogated expression of all the inhibitory molecules studied and a subsequent recovery in T-cell proliferation. Neither interleukin-6 (IL-6) nor IL-10 nor growth factors known to activate STAT3 signaling events were responsible for STAT3 activation. Involvement of the P38MAPK/STAT3 pathways was evident because these proteins had a higher level of phosphorylation in the HIV-1–primed cells. Furthermore, blockade of viral CD4 binding and fusion significantly reduced the negative effects DCs imposed on primed T cells. In conclusion, HIV-1 interaction with DCs modulated their functionality, causing them to trigger the activation of the P38MAPK/STAT3 pathway in T cells,
which was responsible for the upregulation of inhibitory molecules.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 26, 2012 2:26 PM CDT
Eleni Kandaraki, Antonis Chatzigeorgiou, Christina Piperi, Eleni Palioura, Sotiria Palimeri, Penelope Korkolopoulou, Michael Koutsilieris, and Athanasios G Papavassiliou

Glyoxalase detoxification system composed of glyoxalase (GLO)-I and GLO-II is ubiquitously expressed and implicated in the protection against cellular damage because of cytotoxic metabolites such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Recently, ovarian tissue has emerged as a new target of excessive AGE deposition and has been associated with either a high AGE diet in experimental animals or hyperandrogenic disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in humans. This study was designed to investigate the impact of dietary AGEs and androgens in rat ovarian GLO-I activity of normal nonandrogenized (NAN, group A, n = 18) and androgenized prepubertal (AN) rats (group B, n = 29). Both groups were further randomly assigned, either to a high-AGE (HA) or low-AGE (LA) diet for 3 months. The activity of ovarian GLO-I was significantly reduced in normal NAN animals fed an HA diet compared with an LA diet (p = 0.006). Furthermore, GLO-I activity was markedly reduced in AN animals compared with NAN (p ≤ 0.001) when fed with the corresponding diet type. In addition, ovarian GLO-I activity was positively correlated with the body weight gain (rs = 0.533, p < 0.001), estradiol (rs = 0.326, p = 0.033) and progesterone levels (rs = 0.500, p < 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between GLO-I activity and AGE expression in the ovarian granulosa cell layer of all groups with marginal statistical significance (rs = –0.263, p = 0.07). The present data demonstrate that ovarian GLO-I activity may be regulated by dietary composition and androgen levels. Modification of ovarian GLO-I activity, observed for the first time in this androgenized prepubertal rat model, may present a contributing factor to the reproductive dysfunction characterizing PCOS.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 26, 2012 2:25 PM CDT
Karina Adamowicz, Huizhi Wang, Ravi Jotwani, Iris Zeller, Jan Potempa, and David A Scott

The tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis is driven by the host response to bacterial pathogens. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in innate cells leads to suppression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-initiated proinflammatory cytokines under nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) p65 transcriptional control and promotion of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding (CREB)-dependent gene activation. Therefore, we hypothesized that the cell permeable GSK3-specific inhibitor, SB216763, would protect against alveolar bone loss induced by the key periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), in a murine model. B6129SF2/J mice either were infected orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277; or treated with SB216763 and infected with P. gingivalis; sham infected; or exposed to vehicle only (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]); or to GSK3 inhibitor only (SB216763). Alveolar bone loss and local (neutrophil infiltration and interleukin [IL]-17) and systemic (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], IL-6, Il-1β and IL-12/IL-23 p40) inflammatory indices also were monitored. SB216763 unequivocally abrogated mean P. gingivalis–induced bone resorption, measured at 14 predetermined points on the molars of defleshed maxillae as the distance from the cementoenamel junction to the alveolar bone crest (p < 0.05). The systemic cytokine response, the local neutrophil infiltration and the IL-17 expression were suppressed (p < 0.001). These data confirm the relevance of prior in vitro phenomena and establish GSK3 as a novel, efficacious therapeutic preventing periodontal disease progression in a susceptible host. These findings also may have relevance to other chronic inflammatory diseases and the systemic sequelae associated with periodontal infections.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 26, 2012 2:23 PM CDT
Ovarian cancers are heterogeneous and contain stemlike cells that are able to self-renew and are responsible for sustained tumor growth. Metastasis in the peritoneal cavity occurs more frequently in ovarian cancer than in other malignancies, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. We have identified that ovarian cancer stemlike cells (CSCs), which were defined as side population (SP) cells, were present in patients’ ascitic fluid and mesenchymally transformed cell lines, ES-2 and HO-8910PM. SP cells, which were sorted from both cell lines and implanted into immunocompromised mice, were localized to the xenografted tumor boundary. In addition, SP cells exhibited an epithelial phenotype and showed a distinct gene expression profile with reduced expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), indicating that SP cells exert an important role in ovarian cancer progression on the basis of their delicate interaction with the surrounding microenvironment and anatomical localization in tumors. In contrast, non-SP cells exhibited a more mesenchymal phenotype and showed more increased invasive potential than SP cells. This heterogeneity was observed as an endogenous transformation via the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Inhibition of the EMT process by Snail1 silencing reduced the SP cell frequency, and affected their invasive capacity and engraftment. These findings illustrate the interplay between epithelial ovarian CSCs and the EMT, and exert a link to explain tumor heterogeneity and its necessity for ovarian cancer maintenance, metastasis and progression. 

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 26, 2012 2:20 PM CDT
Fabricia Petronilho, Francieli Vuolo, Letícia Selinger Galant, Larissa Constantino, Cristiane Damiani Tomasi, Vinicius Renne Giombelli, Cláudio Teodoro de Souza, Sabrina da Silva, Denise Frediani Barbeiro, Francisco Garcia Soriano, Emílio Luiz Streck, Cristiane Ritter, Alfeu Zanotto-Filho, Matheus Augusto Pasquali, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Luiz Rybarczyk-Filho, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Norman L Block, Rafael Roesler, Gilberto Schwartsmann, Andrew V Schally, and Felipe Dal-Pizzol

In sepsis, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 modulates the migration of neutrophils to infectious foci, favoring bacteremia and mortality. In experimental sepsis, organ dysfunction and cytokines released by activated macrophages can be reduced by gastrin- releasing peptide (GRP) receptor (GRPR) antagonist RC-3095. Here we report a link between GRPR and TLR-4 in experimental models and in sepsis patients. RAW 264.7 culture cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and RC-3095 (10 ng/mL). Male Wistar rats were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and RC-3095 was administered (3 mg/kg, subcutaneously); after 6 h, we removed the blood, bronchoalveolar lavage, peritoneal lavage and lung. Human patients with a clinical diagnosis of sepsis received a continuous infusion with RC-3095 (3 mg/kg, intravenous) over a period of 12 h, and plasma was collected before and after RC-3095 administration and, in a different set of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis, GRP plasma levels were determined. RC-3095 inhibited TLR-4, extracellular-signal–related kinase (ERK)-1/2, Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt and decreased activation of activator protein 1 (AP-1), nuclear factor (NF)-κB and interleukin (IL)-6 in macrophages stimulated by LPS. It also decreased IL-6 release from macrophages stimulated by TNF-α. RC-3095 treatment in CLP rats decreased lung TLR-4, reduced the migration of cells to the lung and reduced systemic cytokines and bacterial dissemination. Patients with sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome have elevated plasma levels of GRP, which associates with clinical outcome in the sepsis patients. These findings highlight the role of GRPR signaling in sepsis outcome and the beneficial action of GRPR antagonists in controlling the inflammatory response in sepsis through a mechanism involving at least inhibition of TLR-4 signaling.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 26, 2012 2:18 PM CDT

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 26, 2012 2:16 PM CDT
Jinglian Yan, Guodong Tie, and Louis M Messina

Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a potent vasodilator and signaling molecule that plays essential roles in neovascularization. During limb ischemia, decreased NO bioavailability occurs secondary to increased oxidant stress, decreased L-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary cosupplementation with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), L-arginine and vitamin C acts synergistically to decrease oxidant stress, increase NO and thereby increase blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia. Rats were fed normal chow, chow supplemented with BH4 or L-arginine (alone or in combination) or chow supplemented with BH4 + L-arginine + vitamin C for 1 wk before induction of hindlimb ischemia. In the ischemic hindlimb, cosupplementation with BH4 + L-arginine resulted in greater eNOS and phospho-eNOS (P-eNOS) expression, Ca2+- dependent NOS activity and NO concentration in the ischemic calf region (gastrocnemius), as well as greater NO concentration in the region of collateral arteries (gracilis). Rats receiving cosupplementation of BH4 + L-arginine led to greater recovery of foot perfusion and greater collateral enlargement than did rats receiving either agent separately. The addition of vitamin C to the BH4 + L-arginine regimen further increased these dependent variables. In addition, rats given all three supplements showed significantly less Ca2+-independent activity, less nitrotyrosine accumulation, greater glutathione (GSH)–to–glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio and less gastrocnemius muscle necrosis, on both macroscopic and microscopic levels. In conclusion, cosupplementation with BH4 + L-arginine + vitamin C significantly increased blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia by reducing oxidant stress, increasing NO bioavailability, enlarging collateral arteries and reducing muscle necrosis. Oral cosupplementation of BH4, L-arginine and vitamin C holds promise as a biological therapy to induce collateral artery enlargement.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 26, 2012 2:14 PM CDT
Tarcio Teodoro Braga, Matheus Correa-Costa, Yuri Felipe Souza Guise, Angela Castoldi, Cassiano Donizetti de Oliveira, Meire Ioshie Hyane, Marcos Antonio Cenedeze, Simone Aparecida Teixeira, Marcelo Nicolas Muscara, Katia Regina Perez, Iolanda Midea Cuccovia, Alvaro Pacheco-Silva, Giselle Martins Gonçalves, and Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara

Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Molecules released by the inflamed injured tissue can activate toll-like receptors (TLRs), thereby modulating macrophage and CD4+ T-cell activity. We propose that in renal fibrogenesis, M2 macrophages are recruited and activated in a T helper subset 2 cell (TH2)-prone inflammatory milieu in a MyD88- dependent manner. Mice submitted to unilateral ureteral ligation (UUO) demonstrated an increase in macrophage infiltration with collagen deposition after 7 d. Conversely, TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 knockout (KO) mice had an improved renal function together with diminished TH2 cytokine production and decreased fibrosis formation. Moreover, TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 KO animals exhibited less M2 macrophage infiltration, namely interleukin (IL)-10+ and CD206+ CD11bhigh cells, at 7 d after surgery. We evaluated the role of a TH2 cytokine in this context, and observed that the absence of IL-4 was associated with better renal function, decreased IL-13 and TGF- β levels, reduced arginase activity and a decrease in fibrosis formation when compared with IL-12 KO and wild-type (WT) animals. Indeed, the better renal outcomes and the decreased fibrosis formation were restricted to the deficiency of IL-4 in the hematopoietic compartment. Finally, macrophage depletion, rather than the absence of T cells, led to reduced lesions of the glomerular filtration barrier and decreased collagen deposition. These results provide evidence that future therapeutic strategies against renal fibrosis should be accompanied by the modulation of the M1:M2 and TH1:TH2 balance, as TH2 and M2 cells are predictive of fibrosis toward mechanisms that are sensed by innate immune response and triggered in a MyD88-dependent pathway.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 26, 2012 2:12 PM CDT
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