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Years and Volumes

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Articles from this Volume

Zdenka Djuric, Muhammed Kashif , Thomas Fleming, Sajjad Muhammad, David Piel, Rüdiger von Bauer, Florian Bea, Stephan Herzig, Martin Zeier, Marina Pizzi, Berend Isermann, Markus Hecker, Markus Schwaninger, Angelika Bierhaus, and Peter P Nawroth

Psychosocial stress has been shown to be a contributing factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated entirely, it has been shown previously that the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important component of stress-activated signaling pathway. In this study, we aimed to decipher the mechanisms of stress-induced NF-κB-mediated gene expression, using an in vitro and in vivo model of psychosocial stress. Induction of stress led to NF-κB-dependent expression of proinflammatory (tissue factor, intracellular adhesive molecule 1 [ICAM-1]) and protective genes (manganese superoxide dismutase [MnSOD]) via p50, p65 or cRel. Selective inhibition of the different subunits and the respective kinases showed that inhibition of cRel leads to the reduction of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein–/– (ApoE–/–) mice via suppression of proinflammatory gene expression. This observation may therefore provide a possible explanation for ineffectiveness of antioxidant therapies and suggests that selective targeting of cRel activation may provide a novel approach for the treatment of stress-related inflammatory vascular disease. 

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 11, 2012 10:53 AM CST
Yanling Liu, Lan Franco Leo, Corban McGregor, Anzor Grivitishvili, Colin J Barnstable, and Joyce Tombran-Tink

Inflammation, neurodegeneration and microvascular irregularities are included in the spectrum of defects associated with diabetic retinopathy. Here, we evaluated intraocular deliverability features of two pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) derivatives given as eye drops and their efficacy in modulating diabetes-induced retinal complications. The antiangiogenic PEDF60–77 (P60) and neuroprotective PEDF78–121 (P78) derivatives were applied to Ins2Akitamouse eyes once a week for 15 wks at the onset of hyperglycemia. Peptides, labeled with Alexa Fluor 488, were observed penetrating the cornea by 1–4 h and gained access to the ciliary body, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid complex, retina microvasculature and vitreous. Peak vitreous levels were 0.2 μg/mL for P60 and 0.9 μg/mL for P78 after 0.5 and 4 h, respectively. Both peptides reduced vascular leakage by ~60% and increased zona occludens 1 (ZO1) and occludin expression in the microvasculature to nondiabetic levels. P60 induced pERK1/2 and P78 promoted pAKT in Muller glia, two signals that were dampened in diabetic conditions. Pharmacologically inhibiting AKT signaling in the retina blocked effects of the peptides on ZO1 and occludin expression. P78 reduced levels of 9/20 cytokines in diabetic vitreous including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-3 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. P60 lowered levels of 6/20 cytokines but was less effective than P78. Neuroprotective P78 prevented diabetes-induced microglia activation by ~60%, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death by ~22% and inner plexiform layer thinning by ~13%. In summary, we provide evidence that PEDF bioactive derivatives gained access to the retina by topical delivery and validated their efficacy in reducing diabetic retinopathy complications. Our findings argue for glia regulation of microvascular leakage and an early root cause for RGC degeneration embedded in microglia activation. 

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 10, 2012 3:50 PM CST

Sangeeta S Chavan, Patricio T Huerta, Sergio Robbiati, S I Valdes-Ferrer, Mahendar Ochani, Meghan Dancho, Maya Frankfurt, Bruce T Volpe, Kevin J Tracey, and Betty Diamond

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 6, 2012 2:22 PM CST

Is There a Role for High Mobility Group Box 1 and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in the Genesis of Long-term Cognitive Impairment in Sepsis Survivors?

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 5, 2012 11:44 AM CST
Daolin Tang, Timothy R Billiar, and Michael T Lotze

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), the prototypic damage–associated molecular pattern molecule, is released at sites of inflammation and/or tissue damage. There, it promotes cytokine production and chemokine production/cell migration. New work shows that the redox status of HMGB1 distinguishes its cytokine-inducing and chemokine activity. Reduced all-thiol-HMGB1 has sole chemokine activity, whereas disulfide-HMGB1 has only cytokine activity, and oxidized, denatured HMGB1 has neither. Autophagy (programmed cell survival) and apoptosis (programmed cell death) have been implicated in controlling both innate and adaptive immune functions. Reduced HMGB1 protein promotes autophagy, whereas oxidized HMGB1 promotes apoptosis. Thus, the differential activity of HMGB1 in immunity, inflammation and cell death depends on the cellular redox status within tissues. 

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 5, 2012 11:42 AM CST
Patrick M Honore, Rita Jacobs, Olivier Joannes-Boyau, Willem Boer, Elisabeth De Waele, Viola Van Gorp, Jouke De Regt, and Herbert D Spapen

For almost three decades, researchers have invested in strategies that involved removal of excess inflammatory mediators from the circulation (that is, the “cytotoxic” approach). Blood purification techniques using an extracorporeal device can indeed nonspecifically remove a wide array of inflammatory mediators from the circulation. In animal models, this multimediator targeting or pleiotropic approach was shown to downregulate systemic inflammation and to restore immune homeostasis. In this issue, Namas et al. seriously challenge this cytotoxic hypothesis and propose to replace it by a cytokinic approach. In a rodent model of sepsis, these authors elegantly demonstrate that hemoadsorption using a large surface-area polymer could reduce and, more importantly, relocalize and reprogram sepsis-induced acute inflammation, while simultaneously lowering infectious burden and liver damage. Although challenging, this new theory can be considered complementary to the existing cytotoxic hypotheses by coupling reduced endothelial damage at the interstitial level (cytotoxic approach) with the concept of reprogramming leucocytes and mediators toward infected tissue, thus emptying the bloodstream of important promoters of remote organ damages (cytokinic approach).

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 5, 2012 11:40 AM CST
Rami A Namas, Rajaie Namas, Claudio Lagoa, Derek Barclay,1 Qi Mi, Ruben Zamora, Zhiyong Peng, Xiaoyan Wen, Morgan V Fedorchak, Isabella E Valenti, William J Federspiel, John A Kellum, and Yoram Vodovotz



Improper compartmentalization of the inflammatory response leads to systemic inflammation in sepsis. Hemoadsorption (HA) is an emerging approach to modulate sepsis-induced inflammation. We sought to define the effects of HA on inflammatory compartmentalization in Escherichia coli–induced fibrin peritonitis in rats. Hypothesis: HA both reprograms and recompartmentalizes inflammation in sepsis. Sprague Dawley male rats were subjected to E. coli peritonitis and, after 24 h, were randomized to HA or sham treatment (sepsis alone). Venous blood samples collected at 0, 1, 3 and 6 h (that is, 24–30 h of total experimental sepsis), and peritoneal samples collected at 0 and 6 h, were assayed for 14 cytokines along with NO2/NO3. Bacterial counts were assessed in the peritoneal fluid at 0 and 6 h. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, CXCL-1, and CCL2 were significantly reduced in HA versus sham. Principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that inflammation in sham was driven by IL-6 and TNF-α, whereas HA-associated inflammation was driven primarily by TNF-α, CXCL-1, IL-10 and CCL2. Whereas peritoneal bacterial counts, plasma aspartate transaminase levels and peritoneal IL-5, IL-6, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-γ and NO2/NO3 were significantly lower, both CXCL-1 and CCL2 as well as the peritoneal-to-plasma ratios of TNF-α, CXCL-1 and CCL2 were significantly higher in HA versus sham, suggesting that HA-induced inflammatory recompartmentalization leads to the different inflammatory drivers discerned in part by PCA. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the utility of combined in vivo/in silico methods and suggests that HA exerts differential effects on mediator gradients between local and systemic compartments that ultimately benefit the host.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 5, 2012 11:38 AM CST
David W Rosenthal, James A DeVoti, Bettie M Steinberg, Allan L Abramson, and Vincent R Bonagura more...
Posted by Leah Caracappa on Nov 27, 2012 9:45 AM CST
Astrid Spruss, Janin Henkel, Giridhar Kanuri, Daniela Blank, Gerhard P Püschel, Stephan C Bischoff, and Ina Bergheim

As significant differences between sexes were found in the susceptibility to alcoholic liver disease in human and animal models, it was the aim of the present study to investigate whether female mice also are more susceptible to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed either water or 30% fructose solution ad libitum for 16 wks. Liver damage was evaluated by histological scoring. Portal endotoxin levels and markers of Kupffer cell activation and insulin resistance, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (pAMPK ) were measured in the liver. Adiponectin mRNA expression was determined in adipose tissue. Hepatic steatosis was almost similar between male and female mice; however, inflammation was markedly more pronounced in livers of female mice. Portal endotoxin levels, hepatic levels of myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) protein and of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts were elevated in animals with NAFLD regardless of sex. Expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 was decreased to a similar extent in livers of male and female mice with NAFLD. The less pronounced susceptibility to liver damage in male mice was associated with a superinduction of hepatic pAMPK in these mice whereas, in livers of female mice with NAFLD, PAI-1 was markedly induced. Expression of adiponectin in visceral fat was significantly lower in female mice with NAFLD but unchanged in male mice compared with respective controls. In conclusion, our data suggest that the sex-specific differences in the susceptibility to NAFLD are associated with differences in the regulation of the adiponectin–AMPK–PAI-1 signaling cascade.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Nov 27, 2012 9:44 AM CST
Bess Levin, Denise Lech, and Bernard Friedenson

Inheriting a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation can cause a deficiency in repairing complex DNA damage. This step leads to genomic instability and probably contributes to an inherited predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. Complex DNA damage has been viewed as an integral part of DNA replication before cell division. It causes temporary replication blocks, replication fork collapse, chromosome breaks and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). Chemical modification of DNA may also occur spontaneously as a byproduct of normal processes. Pathways containing BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene products are essential to repair spontaneous complex DNA damage or to carry out SCEs if repair is not possible. This scenario creates a theoretical limit that effectively means there are spontaneous BRCA1/2-associated cancers that cannot be prevented or delayed. However, much evidence for high rates of spontaneous DNA mutation is based on measuring SCEs by using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Here we find that the routine use of BrdU has probably led to overestimating spontaneous DNA damage and SCEs because BrdU is itself a mutagen. Evidence based on spontaneous chromosome abnormalities and epidemiologic data indicates strong effects from exogenous mutagens and does not support the inevitability of cancer in all BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We therefore remove a theoretical argument that has limited efforts to develop chemoprevention strategies to delay or prevent cancers in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Nov 20, 2012 2:02 PM CST
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