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Years and Volumes

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Articles from this Volume

Review Article

Andreas A Argyriou and Haralabos P Kalofonos

Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. The prognosis for patients remains poor with a median survival time of up to 3 years. Conventional treatment includes surgical resection and fractioned radiation therapy of the tumor and surrounding brain parenchyma followed by chemotherapy with alkylating compounds.  Argyriou et al. review molecular therapies for malignant gliomas and discuss advances in the molecular and genetic pathogenesis of these lethal brain malignancies.

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Posted by MolMed Editor on Apr 4, 2009 12:00 AM CDT
Review Articles 
 
Zacharoula Panteleakou, Peter Lembessis, Antigone Sourla, Nikolaos Pissimissis, Aristides Polyzos, Charlambos Deliveliotis, and Michael Koutsilieris
 
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in Western countries. Preexisting metastases and those which develop after treatment are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients. Bone metastasis occurs in more than 85% of cases, and patients with bone lesions cannot be cured.  Panteleakou et al. review current literature regarding molecular methods for circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection in the peripheral blood and bone marrow biopsies of prostate cancer patients, and discuss methodological pitfalls that influence molecular staging.

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Posted by MolMed Editor on Apr 3, 2009 12:00 AM CDT
Laila Abdullah, Cheryl Luis, Daniel Paris, Ghania Ait-ghezala, Benoit Mouzon, Elizabeth Allen, Julia Parrish, Myles A Mullan, Scott Ferguson, Marcie Wood, Fiona Crawford, and Michael Mullan
 
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized clinically by progressive cognitive impairment, and pathologically by the presence of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Those with enriched family histories of AD-like dementia may be a high-risk population for development of this disease and an ideal group for evaluation of vascular risk factors of AD and blood Aβ levels. Abdullah et al. examined the potential association between serum Aβ levels and vascular risk factors among cognitively normal first-degree relatives of patients with AD or related dementia. Findings suggest that high Aβ in the periphery among the family history-enriched cohorts may be due to enrichment of vascular risk factors and may reflect presymptomatic AD pathology. Longitudinal evaluation of blood Aβ in this cohort will provide a better understanding of the significance of this association in AD etiology.

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Posted by MolMed Editor on Apr 2, 2009 12:00 AM CDT
Valeria R Mas, Daniel G Maluf, Kellie J Archer, Kenneth Yanek, Xiangrong Kong, Laura Kulik, Chris E Freise, Kim M Olthoff, Rafik M Ghobrial, Paula McIver, and Robert Fisher
 
Liver cancer rates in the US are increasing due to the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV).  Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to HCV may be an indirect result of hepatocyte turnover that occurs as the liver replaces infected cells. Chronic inflammation, immune-mediated hepatocellular destruction, and liver regeneration underlie cirrhosis and are thought to play central roles in primary carcinogenesis. Mas et al. studied the genes involved in viral tumorogenesis and tumor initiation in HCV-induced HCC. They identified gene signatures that distinguish the pathological stages of HCC and potential molecular markers for early HCC diagnosis in high risk cirrhotic HCV patients.  These findings provide a comprehensive molecular portrait of genomic changes in progressive HCV-related HCC.

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Supplementery Data PDF
Posted by MolMed Editor on Apr 1, 2009 12:00 AM CDT
Alberto L Horenstein, Federico Sizzano, Riccardo Lusso, Federico Genzano Besso, Enza Ferrero, Silvia Deaglio, Franco Corno, and Fabio Malavasi
 
The cornea is an avascular and transparent structure in the eye. Fluctuations in ocular cell regulatory processes may lead to blindness, but little is known about these pathological changes. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a precursor of molecules involved in cell regulatory processes, is released in extracellular compartments after stress or inflammation. Horenstein et al. investigate expression in the human cornea of CD38 and CD157, two NAD+- consuming ectoenzymes and surface receptors. Results show the normal human cornea is equipped with a molecular tool to actively metabolize NAD+, helping maintain corneal homeostasis. The presence of these ectoenzymes may pave the way for drug design to control wound repair.

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Posted by MolMed Editor on Mar 3, 2009 12:00 AM CST
Annette Bruchfeld, Juan J Carrero, Abdul R Qureshi, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Barany, Olof Heimburger, Maowen Hu, Xinchun Lin, Peter Stenvikel, and Edmund J Miller
 
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience reduced kidney function over time, and have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that has been implicated in autoimmune diseases. But, knowledge regarding the role of MIF in renal patients is limited. In this work, Bruchfeld et al. investigated whether circulating MIF levels were elevated in patients with CKD. While MIF concentrations were elevated significantly in CKD patients compared with controls, they did not correlate with glomerular filtration rate, a measurement of kidney function, or with other inflammatory markers such as CRP, IL-6, and TNF. The data suggest increased MIF found in CKD may not be caused by poor renal function, but may be associated with markers of oxidative stress and endothelial activation with possible implications for a role in vascular processes in this population.

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Posted by MolMed Editor on Mar 2, 2009 12:00 AM CST

Commentary

Federico Caligaris-Cappio

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Posted by MolMed Editor on Mar 1, 2009 12:00 AM CST
 
Mini-Review Article

Panagiotis A Konstantinopoulos, Michalis V Karamouzis, and Athanasios G Papavassiliou


Molecular medicine is transforming everyday clinical practice, providing a more personalized approach to disease prevention, prognosis, and treatment. The successful translation of the advances of biomedical research in everyday clinical practice depends largely upon our ability to train researchers and health professionals in molecular medicine, and to inform and educate the public. In this mini-review, Konstantinopoulos et al. discuss the educational and social-ethical issues raised by the advances of biomedical research as related to medical practice, outline the implications of molecular medicine, and emphasize the responsibility of academia and the pharmaceutical industry to translate the scientific knowledge to an improved quality of life.

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Posted by MolMed Editor on Feb 4, 2009 12:00 AM CST
 
Review Article

Roland Pálffy, Roman Gardlik, Michal Behuliak, Ludevit Kadasi, Jan Turna, and Peter Celec


Infectious diseases are the most common cause of death in developing countries. While effective treatments are available for most infections, microbial horizontal gene transfer and the misuse of antibiotics leads to antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial peptides, a heterogeneous group of molecules, are part of the basic line of defense in innate immunity. Pálffy et al. review the basic physiology of antimicrobial peptides and their possible therapeutic use against antimicrobial resistance.

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Posted by MolMed Editor on Feb 3, 2009 12:00 AM CST
Review Article

Ahmet Korkmaz, Russel J Reiter, Turgut Topal, Lucien C Manchester, Sukru Oter, and 
Dun-Xian Tan
 
Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of aging and many metabolic diseases. More than half of the American population is aware of antiaging therapies and currently use them in some form. Melatonin, a multifunctional indolamine, is easily synthesized in a pharmacologically pure form, counteracts most pathophysiologic steps, and displays significant beneficial actions against peroxynitrite-induced cellular toxicity. Korkmaz et al. discuss melatonin’s potential for treatment of oxidative stress due to its antioxidative and antiinflammatory properties.

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Posted by MolMed Editor on Feb 2, 2009 12:00 AM CST
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