Years and Volumes

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Articles from this Volume

Review Article

Lars Steinstraesser, Till Koehler, Frank Jacobsen, Adrien Daigeler, Ole Goertz, Stefan Langer, Marco Kesting, Hans Steinau, Elof Eriksson, and Tobias Hirsch

Skin and soft tissue infections account for 7-10% of hospitalizations and represent one of the most common indications for antimicrobial therapy in the United States.  Wound infections and sepsis are an increasing cause of death in severely ill patients, and the treatment of chronic and complex wounds puts a significant burden on the health care system and on the economy as a whole.  In this review, Steinstraesser et al. (528-537) focus on the current knowledge of host defense peptides affecting wound healing and infection.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 9, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Review Article

James P Stice and Anne A Knowlton

Estrogen is known to induce a number of beneficial physiological effects, particularly in the neurological and cardiovascular systems. These benefits can be attributed to the antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of E2, the most biologically active metabolite of estrogen.  E2 interacts with and modulates NFκB activity, inducing expression of the protective class of proteins, HSPs.  Stice and Knowlton (517-527) focus on the molecular mechanisms and biological relevance of cross-talk between E2, NFκB, and HSPs.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 8, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Review Article

Mattieu Legrand, Egbert Mik, Tanja Johannes, Didier Payen, and Can Ince

Ischemia is the most common cause of acute renal failure – a common condition that develops in 5% of hospitalized patients.  Recent investigations have identified a central role of microvascular dysfunction leading to decreased renal oxygen supply and changes in oxygen consumption during the ischemia-reperfusion injury process. Legrand et al. (502-516) provide an overview of how renal oxygenation pathways are affected by I/R in the kidney and how these processes affect organ failure. 

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 7, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Rinki Ray, Nathan M Novotny, Paul R Crisostomo, Tim Lahm, Aaron Abarbanell, and Daniel R Meldrum

Gender dimorphisms exist in a variety of disorders. Estrogens influence myocardial remodeling following insult, facilitate mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells to the ischemic myocardium and enhance neovascularization at the ischemic border zone. Stem cell transplantation has improved treatment for several disorders; however a greater understanding of the effects of sex hormones on stem cell populations is required to improve clinical efficacy.  In this review, Ray et al. (493-501) summarize current knowledge regarding the effects of estrogens and androgens on various stem cell populations.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 6, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Carl Nathan

Over the past few decades more than half of Americans were among the billion people worldwide who had become overweight or obese.  Inflammation has been recognized as a major driver in the pathogenesis of common diseases, such as diabetes and cancer, in which obesity is a major risk factor.  While it is not suggested that obesity’s initial cause is inflammation, it does frequently lead to inflammation that appears to arise first in certain fat deposits.  Nathan (485-492) reviews evidence that reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates help drive chronic inflammation in the obese.   

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 5, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
John R Klune, Rajeev Dhupar, Jon Cardinal, Timothy R Billar, and Allan Tsung

Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of innate immune system activation have pointed to certain pattern recognition receptors as a common pathway for immune identification of both microbial invasion and tissue injury.  By sensing either pathogens or endogenous danger signals released upon cellular stress or damage, these pattern recognition receptors, or alarmins, are capable of alerting the host to danger by activating the innate immune system.  Klune et al. (476-484) describe the role of an archetypical alarmin, HMGB1, and its potential therapeutic role in various disease states.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 4, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Mario Perl, Joanne Lomas-Neira, Chun-Shiang Chung, and Alfred Ayala

Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is associated with high morbidity and mortality.  ALI is a co-morbid event associated with a diverse family of diseases and the lack of therapeutic options for ALI may result from distinct pathological processes.  Activated neutrophil induced tissue injury and epithelial cell apoptosis-mediated lung damage represent two potentially important candidate pathomechanisms in ALI.  In this review, Perl et al. (465-475) focus on these pathogenic mechanisms as well as the role of small interfering RNA as a potential therapeutic for ALI.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 3, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
G Brent Irvine, Omar M El-Agnaf, Ganesh M Shankar, and Dominic M Walsh

Developing effective treatments for neurodegenerative diseases is one of the greatest medical challenges of the 21st century.  Protein aggregation is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases and is assumed to play a central role in pathogenesis.  Irvine et al. (451-464) discuss this theme as it relates to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. 

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 2, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Xiaoling Qiang, Rongqian Wu, Youxin Ji, Mian Zhou, and Ping Wang

Vascular responsiveness to adrenomedullin (AM), a potent vasoactive peptide, decreases during sepsis and hemorrhage and improves after administration of its binding protein (AMBP-1). While AM/AMBP-1 may be a leading candidate for sepsis and hemorrhage treatment, the high cost of commercial AMBP-1 has limited the development of human AM and AMBP-1 as therapeutic agents.  In this work Qiang et al. (443-450) successfully isolated and purified AMBP-1 from human serum and demonstrated its stability and biological activity in vitro and in vivo. This technique allows further development of human AM/AMBP-1 as a therapy for safe and effective treatment of hemorrhagic shock, sepsis, and ischemic injury.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 1, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Midori Masuda, Katsuya Amano, Shi Yan Hong, Noriko Nishimura, Masayoshi Fukui, Masamichi Yoshika, Yutaka Komiyama, Hiroya Masaki, Toshiji Iwasaka, and Hakuo Takahashi

Atherosclerosis is the buildup of plaque deposits in the arteries. Macrophages play a major role in this vascular lesion development. The FcγRIIIa(CD16) receptor is expressed in a minor subset of peripheral blood monocytes and is present in human atherosclerotic plaques. Soluble FcγRIIIa found in plasma is significantly increased in patients with coronary artery disease. Masuda et al. (436-442) investigated the potential of FcγRIIIa as biomarker for atherosclerosis. Results showed the soluble FcγRIIIa levels were related to the number of risk factors for atherosclerosis including aging, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and cholesterolemia as well as carotid maximum intima-media thickness. This indicates macrophage activation during the incipient stage of atherosclerosis and the potential use of soluble FcγRIIIa as a predictive marker for this disease.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jul 10, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
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