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Years and Volumes

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Articles from this Volume

Review Articles

Steven C Gribar, Ward M Richardson, Chhinder P Sodhi, and David J Hackam

Diseases of mucosal inflammation represent important causes of morbidity and mortality, and have led to intense research efforts to understand the factors that lead to their development. Disease occurs when the intestinal epithelial barrier breaks down. However, the mechanisms leading to barrier breakdown and subsequent inflammation are controversial. Gribar et al. (645-659) review recent work on this topic and identify essential areas for further study.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 7, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Daniele Bottai, Laura Madaschi, Anna M Di Giulio, and Alfredo Gorio

There currently is no therapy for spinal cord injury, leaving patients permanently disabled. The observation that neural stem cells (NSCs) may be useful for treating degenerative brain conditions prompted Bottai et al. (634-644) to assess the effects of adult NSC transplantation in a model of spinal cord injury (SCI). NSCs administered either by intravenous injection or direct transplantation into the spinal cord significantly improved recovery of hind limb function and attenuated degeneration. Intravenous administration of NSCs yielded a more significant recovery compared with intraspinal administration. These results indicate adult NSC cellular therapy via intravenous administration may represent a useful treatment for spinal cord injury.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 6, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Martin G Schwacha, Eike Nickel, and TanJanika Daniel

A major complication associated with burn injury is delayed wound healing. Although burn patient care has improved, problems develop which are often associated with the healing process. While healing of the burn injury site is essential, healing of distal injury sites caused by surgical interventions and other processes are also important. In this work, Schwacha et al. (628-633) explored the mechanisms of distal wound healing and found that reduced levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α contribute to the impaired wound-healing response post-burn. 

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 5, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Brian A McCarthy, Erin Boyle, Xue Ping Wang, Dorothy Guzowski, Santanu Paul, Rosa Catera, Joshua Trott, Xiao-jie Yan, Carlo M Croce, Rajendra Damle, Sophia Yancopoulos, Bradley T Messmer, Martin Lesser, Steven L Allen, Kanti R Rai, and Nicholas Chiorazzi

Bcl-2 has been widely studied in oncology since its discovery in follicular lymphoma cells. Bcl-2 can locate as an integral mitochondrial membrane component where its primary role is to block apoptosis by maintaining membrane integrity. In this work, McCarthy et al. (618-627) demonstrate the presence of Bcl-2 on the surface membrane of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells. Although the function of cell surface-associated Bcl-2 is not clear, its appearance primarily on cells undergoing apoptosis suggests a relationship between surface membrane re-localization and the apoptotic process.

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Supplementary Data l Figures 1-4 l PDF

Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 4, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

James A DeVoti, David W Rosenthal, Rong Wu, Allan L Abramson, Bettie M Steinberg, and Vincent R Bonagura

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is primarily caused by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11. The viruses induce benign tumor growth in the larynx causing significant morbidity and occasionally mortality. Standard treatment is repeated surgery to remove papillomas that, because of their location in the airway, cause significant morbidity and on occasion mortality. The interval between surgical intervention varies between patients, ranging from 3 weeks to several years.  In order to identify novel targets for future therapy, DeVoti et al. (608-617) established transcriptional profiles for actively growing papillomas. Results support the role of a systemic TH2-like adaptive immune response in RRP, suggest a role for altered innate immunity and identify novel targets for future therapeutic interventions in RRP.

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Supplementary Data l View PDF 

Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 3, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Jun-Hua Yuan, Yan-Qing Li, and Xiao-Yun Yang

Colorectal cancer causes significant mortality in Western countries and is the second most common fatal cancer site. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an active ingredient in green tea, exhibits anti-carcinogenic effects. Yuan et al. (590-598) investigated the potential of EGCG in the prevention of early morphological alterations of colon carcinogenesis. Results indicate that dose-response administration of EGCG results in increasing preventive effects in an animal model of colon cancer. This EGCG polyphenol from green tea may offer an effective and inexpensive preventive strategy for patients predisposed to colon cancer.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 1, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Xiao-Guang Ni, Lu Zhou, Gui-Qi Wang, Shang-Mei Liu, Xiao-Feng Bai, Fang Liu,  Maikel P Peppelenbosch, and Ping Zhao

Pancreatic cancer is a virulent malignancy with an overall five-year survival rate of only 3-5%.  Despite this poor prognosis, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms involved in this disease. Pancreatic tumor cells characteristically display a disturbed cytoskeleton and in this work, Ni et al. (582-589) compared proteomes from pancreatic cancer samples with controls. The gelsolin protein, capable of severing and capping actin filament cytoskeletal structural proteins, was diminished in the cancerous samples. Gelsolin mRNA was not downregulated in cancerous samples, suggesting posttranscriptional mechanisms may mediate low gelsolin protein levels. Further investigation into gelsolin degradation in cancer progression may have clinical significance in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pancreatic and other cancers.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Sep 7, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Chunyu Liu, Franak Batliwalla, Wentian Li, Annette Lee, Ronenn Roubenoff, Evan Beckman, Houman Khalili, Aarti Damle, Marlena Kern, Richard Furie, Josée Dupuis, Robert M Plenge, Marieke JH Coenen, Timothy W Behrens, John P Carulli, and Peter K Gregersen

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a key regulator of the inflammatory cascade in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and several other inflammatory diseases. TNF antagonists have been approved by the FDA to treat arthritis and their therapeutic utility is well established.  However, efficacy in patients is unpredictable with approximately one third of patients exhibiting minimal or no response. Therefore, the prediction of response to anti-TNF treatment for RA is a pressing clinical problem. Liu et al. (575-581) conducted a genome wide association study on 89 RA patients prospectively followed after beginning anti-TNF therapy as part of the Autoimmune Biomarkers Collaborative Network (ABCoN). Several SNPs show significant association with the change in disease activity score (DAS28) observed in RA patients over a 14-week period of treatment. While additional data sets are necessary to replicate and support this data, these results suggest SNP analysis may be useful to predict response to anti-TNF therapy.

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Supplementary Data l View PDF

Posted by Leah Caracappa on Sep 6, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

William R Parrish, Mauricio Rosas-Ballina, Margot Gallowitsch-Puerta, Mahendar Ochani, Kanta Ochani, Li-Hong Yang, LaQueta Hudson, Xinchun Lin, Narev Patel, Sarah M Johnson, Sangeeta Chavan, Richard S Goldstein, Christopher J Czura, Edmund J Miller, Yousef Al-Abed, Kevin J Tracey, and Valentin A Pavlov

Excessive proinflammatory cytokine production and release into circulation by immune cells is associated with septic shock, sepsis and other disorders. Exacerbated release of proinflammatory cytokines and lethality during endotoxemia and sepsis can be controlled by the efferent vagus nerve-based “cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway.”  The α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is an essential component of this pathway. Choline, an essential nutrient, is a selective natural α7nAChR agonist. Parrish et al. (567-574) studied the antiinflammatory potential of choline in models of endotoxemia and sepsis. The data characterize the antiinflammatory efficacy of choline and demonstrate the modulation of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor release by choline requires α7nAChR-mediated signaling. These results suggest choline may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of sepsis and other inflammatory disorders.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Sep 5, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Yanxia Liu, Nannan Li, Li You, Xin Liu, Hongyan Li, and Xin Yang

The placenta plays a pivotal role in the acceptance of the fetal-placental unit by the maternal immune system.  Placental vascular disease (PVD) induces complications in human pregnancy such as preeclampsia and fetal intrauterine growth restriction.  Endothelial cell injury and activation in the placenta occur during PVD and in this work Liu et al. (561-566) investigated risk factors and signal transcription pathways involved.  Results indicate heat shock protein 70 may mediate endothelial activation and play a role in PVD pathogenesis.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Sep 4, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
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