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Years and Volumes

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Articles from this Volume

Jie Zhang, Annett M Jacobi, Tao Wang, and Betty Diamond

Antibodies to a wide variety of autoantigens are a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies can develop from non-DNA-reactive B cells and may play a crucial role for somatic mutation in dsDNA binding. However, only a limited number of anti-dsDNA antibodies have been analyzed previously and other mechanisms for the generation of anti-dsDNA antibodies in SLE patients cannot be excluded.  Zhang et al. isolated three somatically mutated anti-dsDNA antibodies from peripheral blood B cells of a lupus patient and reverted them to their germline configuration. Two of the three reverted anti-dsDNA antibodies displayed decreased DNA binding while the third recognized dsDNA in both its mutated and germline configuration. This implies that B cell activation occurs in response to self and non-self antigens, while selection after activation may be mediated by self antigen. Future work with additional patients will be necessary to determine if multiple tolerance checkpoints must fail for a lupus-like phenotype to develop.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Nov 2, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Rosa Catera, Gregg J Silverman, Katerina Hatzi, Till Seiler, Sebastien Didier, Lu Zhang, Maxime Hervé, Eric Meffre, David G Oscier, Helen Vlassara, R Hal Scofield, Yifang Chen, Steven L Allen, Jonathan Kolitz, Kanti R Rai, Charles C Chu, and Nicholas Chiorazzi

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent hematologic malignancy affecting Caucasian adults. The disease is characterized by a monoclonal expansion of a subset of antigen-experienced human B cells expressing surface membrane CD5.  CLL cells likely derive from autoreactive B cells and Catera et al. explored whether apoptosis-associated autoantigens were relevant to the selection and expansion of leukemic cells in CLL. Their findings suggest that CLL arises from a B-cell subset which normally helps clear cellular debris and metabolic byproducts by recognition of ubiquitous, conserved autoantigens. Response to this recognition may drive the clonal expansion of leukemic cells, thereby contributing to clinical outcome.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Nov 1, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Review Articles

Steven C Gribar, Ward M Richardson, Chhinder P Sodhi, and David J Hackam

Diseases of mucosal inflammation represent important causes of morbidity and mortality, and have led to intense research efforts to understand the factors that lead to their development. Disease occurs when the intestinal epithelial barrier breaks down. However, the mechanisms leading to barrier breakdown and subsequent inflammation are controversial. Gribar et al. (645-659) review recent work on this topic and identify essential areas for further study.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 7, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Daniele Bottai, Laura Madaschi, Anna M Di Giulio, and Alfredo Gorio

There currently is no therapy for spinal cord injury, leaving patients permanently disabled. The observation that neural stem cells (NSCs) may be useful for treating degenerative brain conditions prompted Bottai et al. (634-644) to assess the effects of adult NSC transplantation in a model of spinal cord injury (SCI). NSCs administered either by intravenous injection or direct transplantation into the spinal cord significantly improved recovery of hind limb function and attenuated degeneration. Intravenous administration of NSCs yielded a more significant recovery compared with intraspinal administration. These results indicate adult NSC cellular therapy via intravenous administration may represent a useful treatment for spinal cord injury.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 6, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Martin G Schwacha, Eike Nickel, and TanJanika Daniel

A major complication associated with burn injury is delayed wound healing. Although burn patient care has improved, problems develop which are often associated with the healing process. While healing of the burn injury site is essential, healing of distal injury sites caused by surgical interventions and other processes are also important. In this work, Schwacha et al. (628-633) explored the mechanisms of distal wound healing and found that reduced levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α contribute to the impaired wound-healing response post-burn. 

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 5, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Brian A McCarthy, Erin Boyle, Xue Ping Wang, Dorothy Guzowski, Santanu Paul, Rosa Catera, Joshua Trott, Xiao-jie Yan, Carlo M Croce, Rajendra Damle, Sophia Yancopoulos, Bradley T Messmer, Martin Lesser, Steven L Allen, Kanti R Rai, and Nicholas Chiorazzi

Bcl-2 has been widely studied in oncology since its discovery in follicular lymphoma cells. Bcl-2 can locate as an integral mitochondrial membrane component where its primary role is to block apoptosis by maintaining membrane integrity. In this work, McCarthy et al. (618-627) demonstrate the presence of Bcl-2 on the surface membrane of human chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells. Although the function of cell surface-associated Bcl-2 is not clear, its appearance primarily on cells undergoing apoptosis suggests a relationship between surface membrane re-localization and the apoptotic process.

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Supplementary Data l Figures 1-4 l PDF

Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 4, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

James A DeVoti, David W Rosenthal, Rong Wu, Allan L Abramson, Bettie M Steinberg, and Vincent R Bonagura

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is primarily caused by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11. The viruses induce benign tumor growth in the larynx causing significant morbidity and occasionally mortality. Standard treatment is repeated surgery to remove papillomas that, because of their location in the airway, cause significant morbidity and on occasion mortality. The interval between surgical intervention varies between patients, ranging from 3 weeks to several years.  In order to identify novel targets for future therapy, DeVoti et al. (608-617) established transcriptional profiles for actively growing papillomas. Results support the role of a systemic TH2-like adaptive immune response in RRP, suggest a role for altered innate immunity and identify novel targets for future therapeutic interventions in RRP.

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Supplementary Data l View PDF 

Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 3, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Takuya Saiki, Tomoko Kawai, Kyoko Morita, Masayuki Ohta, Toshiro Saito, Kazuhito Rokutan, and Nobutaro Ban

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a clinically defined condition characterized by long-lasting disabling fatigue. The mechanisms involved in CFS remain unknown and therefore biomarkers for pathological fatigue assessment do not exist. Saiki et al. (599-607) compared gene expression profiles from CFS subjects with control subjects and identified nine differentially regulated genes in CFS. This expression profile was subsequently tested in additional CFS and non-CFS subjects with long lasting fatigue, correctly classifying over 90% of CFS and non-CFS patients. These results suggest this gene cluster may be useful in detecting pathological responses in CFS patients and for differential diagnosis of this syndrome.

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Supplementary Material Table 1

Supplementary Material Table 2

Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 2, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Jun-Hua Yuan, Yan-Qing Li, and Xiao-Yun Yang

Colorectal cancer causes significant mortality in Western countries and is the second most common fatal cancer site. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an active ingredient in green tea, exhibits anti-carcinogenic effects. Yuan et al. (590-598) investigated the potential of EGCG in the prevention of early morphological alterations of colon carcinogenesis. Results indicate that dose-response administration of EGCG results in increasing preventive effects in an animal model of colon cancer. This EGCG polyphenol from green tea may offer an effective and inexpensive preventive strategy for patients predisposed to colon cancer.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Oct 1, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Xiao-Guang Ni, Lu Zhou, Gui-Qi Wang, Shang-Mei Liu, Xiao-Feng Bai, Fang Liu,  Maikel P Peppelenbosch, and Ping Zhao

Pancreatic cancer is a virulent malignancy with an overall five-year survival rate of only 3-5%.  Despite this poor prognosis, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms involved in this disease. Pancreatic tumor cells characteristically display a disturbed cytoskeleton and in this work, Ni et al. (582-589) compared proteomes from pancreatic cancer samples with controls. The gelsolin protein, capable of severing and capping actin filament cytoskeletal structural proteins, was diminished in the cancerous samples. Gelsolin mRNA was not downregulated in cancerous samples, suggesting posttranscriptional mechanisms may mediate low gelsolin protein levels. Further investigation into gelsolin degradation in cancer progression may have clinical significance in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pancreatic and other cancers.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Sep 7, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
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