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Years and Volumes

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Articles from this Volume

Chunyu Liu, Franak Batliwalla, Wentian Li, Annette Lee, Ronenn Roubenoff, Evan Beckman, Houman Khalili, Aarti Damle, Marlena Kern, Richard Furie, Josée Dupuis, Robert M Plenge, Marieke JH Coenen, Timothy W Behrens, John P Carulli, and Peter K Gregersen

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a key regulator of the inflammatory cascade in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and several other inflammatory diseases. TNF antagonists have been approved by the FDA to treat arthritis and their therapeutic utility is well established.  However, efficacy in patients is unpredictable with approximately one third of patients exhibiting minimal or no response. Therefore, the prediction of response to anti-TNF treatment for RA is a pressing clinical problem. Liu et al. (575-581) conducted a genome wide association study on 89 RA patients prospectively followed after beginning anti-TNF therapy as part of the Autoimmune Biomarkers Collaborative Network (ABCoN). Several SNPs show significant association with the change in disease activity score (DAS28) observed in RA patients over a 14-week period of treatment. While additional data sets are necessary to replicate and support this data, these results suggest SNP analysis may be useful to predict response to anti-TNF therapy.

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Supplementary Data l View PDF

Posted by Leah Caracappa on Sep 6, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

William R Parrish, Mauricio Rosas-Ballina, Margot Gallowitsch-Puerta, Mahendar Ochani, Kanta Ochani, Li-Hong Yang, LaQueta Hudson, Xinchun Lin, Narev Patel, Sarah M Johnson, Sangeeta Chavan, Richard S Goldstein, Christopher J Czura, Edmund J Miller, Yousef Al-Abed, Kevin J Tracey, and Valentin A Pavlov

Excessive proinflammatory cytokine production and release into circulation by immune cells is associated with septic shock, sepsis and other disorders. Exacerbated release of proinflammatory cytokines and lethality during endotoxemia and sepsis can be controlled by the efferent vagus nerve-based “cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway.”  The α7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is an essential component of this pathway. Choline, an essential nutrient, is a selective natural α7nAChR agonist. Parrish et al. (567-574) studied the antiinflammatory potential of choline in models of endotoxemia and sepsis. The data characterize the antiinflammatory efficacy of choline and demonstrate the modulation of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor release by choline requires α7nAChR-mediated signaling. These results suggest choline may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of sepsis and other inflammatory disorders.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Sep 5, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Yanxia Liu, Nannan Li, Li You, Xin Liu, Hongyan Li, and Xin Yang

The placenta plays a pivotal role in the acceptance of the fetal-placental unit by the maternal immune system.  Placental vascular disease (PVD) induces complications in human pregnancy such as preeclampsia and fetal intrauterine growth restriction.  Endothelial cell injury and activation in the placenta occur during PVD and in this work Liu et al. (561-566) investigated risk factors and signal transcription pathways involved.  Results indicate heat shock protein 70 may mediate endothelial activation and play a role in PVD pathogenesis.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Sep 4, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Celeste C Finnerty, Marc G Jeschke, David N Herndon, Richard Garnelli, Nicole Gibran, Matthew Klein, Geoff Silver, Brett Arnoldo, Daniel Remick, Ronald G Tompkins, and the Investigators of the Inflammation and the Host Response Glue Grant

The severe hypermetabolic response following burn injury correlates with age and may be a major contributor to higher morbidity and mortality rates observed in adult burn patients compared with children. Finnerty et al. (553-560) hypothesized the factor linking age and morbidity was the inflammatory response. The authors compared plasma cytokine profiles following a severe burn in adults and children. Findings show cytokine profiles in pediatric patients differ compared with those in adult patients. These results may provide insight with respect to the higher morbidity rate in adults and suggest children and adults may benefit from different post-burn therapeutic interventions. 

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Sep 3, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Martin Begemann, Derya Sargin, Moritz J Rossner, Claudia Bartels, Fabian Theis, Sven P Wichert, Nike Stender, Benjamin Fisher, Swetlana Sperling, Sabina Stawicki, Anne Wiedl, Peter Falkai, Klaus-Armin Nave, and Hannelore Ehrenreich

Rapid cycling syndrome, characterized by at least four episodes of depression or mania per year, is present in 10-30% of the bipolar population. The molecular mechanisms underlying bipolar disorder remain unknown. Begemann et al. (546-552) hypothesized cycling alterations in brain function may be reflected in systemic changes with a molecular genetic basis. Molecular signatures of manic and depressed states in peripheral blood, while not disease-inducing, may shed light on similar cyclic alterations in the brain. The authors examined peripheral gene expression in an individual during recurrent stages of disease. Dysregulated gene transcripts included genes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of prostaglandin D2. Prostaglandins, associated with inflammation, are also known to induce hibernation in certain animals. Based on this finding the authors conducted a clinical experiment, treating the patient with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor celecoxib (off-label). In contrast to prior pharmacological attempts to treat this patient (over 17 years), targeting prostaglandin synthesis resulted in a reduced clinical severity rating of both depressed and manic phases. This encouraging result is compatible with a mediator role of prostaglandins in this psychiatric disease.

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Supplementary Data

Posted by Leah Caracappa on Sep 2, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Commentary

Nikolaos A Papanikolaou and Athanasios G Papavassiliou

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Sep 1, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Review Article

Lars Steinstraesser, Till Koehler, Frank Jacobsen, Adrien Daigeler, Ole Goertz, Stefan Langer, Marco Kesting, Hans Steinau, Elof Eriksson, and Tobias Hirsch


Skin and soft tissue infections account for 7-10% of hospitalizations and represent one of the most common indications for antimicrobial therapy in the United States.  Wound infections and sepsis are an increasing cause of death in severely ill patients, and the treatment of chronic and complex wounds puts a significant burden on the health care system and on the economy as a whole.  In this review, Steinstraesser et al. (528-537) focus on the current knowledge of host defense peptides affecting wound healing and infection.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 9, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Review Article

James P Stice and Anne A Knowlton

Estrogen is known to induce a number of beneficial physiological effects, particularly in the neurological and cardiovascular systems. These benefits can be attributed to the antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of E2, the most biologically active metabolite of estrogen.  E2 interacts with and modulates NFκB activity, inducing expression of the protective class of proteins, HSPs.  Stice and Knowlton (517-527) focus on the molecular mechanisms and biological relevance of cross-talk between E2, NFκB, and HSPs.


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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 8, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Review Article

Mattieu Legrand, Egbert Mik, Tanja Johannes, Didier Payen, and Can Ince

Ischemia is the most common cause of acute renal failure – a common condition that develops in 5% of hospitalized patients.  Recent investigations have identified a central role of microvascular dysfunction leading to decreased renal oxygen supply and changes in oxygen consumption during the ischemia-reperfusion injury process. Legrand et al. (502-516) provide an overview of how renal oxygenation pathways are affected by I/R in the kidney and how these processes affect organ failure. 

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 7, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Rinki Ray, Nathan M Novotny, Paul R Crisostomo, Tim Lahm, Aaron Abarbanell, and Daniel R Meldrum

Gender dimorphisms exist in a variety of disorders. Estrogens influence myocardial remodeling following insult, facilitate mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells to the ischemic myocardium and enhance neovascularization at the ischemic border zone. Stem cell transplantation has improved treatment for several disorders; however a greater understanding of the effects of sex hormones on stem cell populations is required to improve clinical efficacy.  In this review, Ray et al. (493-501) summarize current knowledge regarding the effects of estrogens and androgens on various stem cell populations.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Aug 6, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
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