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Years and Volumes

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Articles from this Volume

Shan-Shan Xing, Hong-Wei Tan, Xiu-Ping Bi, Ming Zhong, Yun Zhang, and Wei Zhang

High dietary intake of fructose has rapidly become an important causative factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is associated with accelerated macrovascular and microvascular coronary disease, cardiomyopathy and elevated inflammatory status. Xing et al. (395-402) fed rats fructose to investigate whether metabolic syndrome-associated elevation of IL-18, an inflammatory cytokine associated with increased adiposity and insulin resistance could be pharmacologically attenuated. Results show the calcium channel blocker felodipine attenuated serum levels of IL-18, cardiac IL-18 mRNA, and coronary perivascular fibrosis suggesting IL-18 may contribute to the pathological sequelae of this disease.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jul 5, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Sandrine Delbosc, Mounsif Haloui, Liliane Louedec, Morgan Dupuis, Myriam Cubizolles, Vladimir N Podust, Eric T Fung, Jean-Baptiste Michel, and Olivier Meilhac

Hypertension is one of the main risk factors for vascular disease. To explore markers of hypertension-related morbidity, Delbosc et al. (383-394) investigated changes in proteins released by the aorta in two models with differing susceptibility to hypertension. Results indicate a greater susceptibility to endothelial dysfunction is associated with aortic wall hypertrophic remodeling. The authors also identified SM22α as a potential marker of susceptibility to hypertension-induced arterial wall remodeling.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jul 4, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Bo Chen, Qin Zong, Ricardo Cibotti, Chad Morris, Juana Castaneda, Brian Naiman, Derong Liu, Anna Glodek, Gary P Sims, Ronald Herbst, Stephen K Horrigan, Peter A Kiener, Dan Soppet, Anthony J Coyle, and Laurent Audoly

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease which affects mainly women during their childbearing years. SLE is characterized by anti-nuclear autoantibodies and inflammatory lesions which target several tissues in the body. There remains an urgent need for novel, safe, effective therapies. Inhibition of type I interferons, such as IFN-α, may provide a therapeutic benefit for SLE and other autoimmune diseases. Chen et al. (374-382) screened a small compound library to identify modulators of IFN-α biological effects. A high throughput genomic-based screen was applied to prioritize small molecule inhibitors targeting various intracellular signaling pathways. This work describes a novel strategy to identify small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune disorders.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jul 3, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Miroslaw Kornek, Veronika Lukacs-Kornek, Andreas Limmer, Esther Raskopf, Ursula Becker, Maren Klöckner, Tilman Sauerbruch, and Volker Schmitz

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of liver cancer that may occur in conjunction with cirrhosis, an accumulation of scar tissue in the liver. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a role in tumor angiogenesis and in this work, Kornek et al. (365-373) sought to interrupt the VEGF pathway using gene silencing in a model of HCC with preexisting liver fibrosis. Treatment with VEGF-A small interfering RNA was efficient when combined with the cationic lipid DOTAP. These results may help direct and improve future experimental gene silencing approaches in order to establish more efficient anti-tumoral therapies against HCC.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jul 2, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
Commentary

Bernhard Schaller and Nora Sandu

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jul 1, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Review Article

Ananda S Prasad

Although zinc requirements for plants and animals have been long-known, the role of zinc in human physiology has only recently been recognized. Zinc deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and is responsible for growth retardation in as many as two billion people. In this review, Dr. Prasad (353-357) reviews the evidence that zinc deficiency can lead to immune dysfunction, cognitive impairment, bullous pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, weight loss, and a host of other complications.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jun 7, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Review Article

Bart Ferwerda, Matthew BB McCall, Karlijn Verheijen, Bart-Jan Kullberg, André JAM van der Ven, Jos WM Van der Meer, and Mihai G Netea

The innate immune system recognizes a broad range of pathogens and initiates protective responses. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pathogen recognition receptor that binds lipopolysaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, structures from fungal and mycobacterial pathogens, and endogenous ligands. Two nonsynonymous polymorphisms of TLR4 may alter the function of the receptor. Ferwerda et al. (346-352) compare studies that assessed the effect of these polymorphisms on susceptibility to Gram-negative infections, and examine the phenotypic consequences of these polymorphisms. In addition, the geographical distribution of the TLR4 polymorphisms is reviewed, and a model for the evolutionary pressures on the TLR4 genetic make-up is presented.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jun 6, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Review Article

Andrew J Vardanian, Ronald W Busuttil, and Jerzy W Kupiec-Weglinski

Ischemia and reperfusion injury represents a complex series of events that result in cellular and tissue damage. Vardanian et al. (337-345) describe the current understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia and reperfusion injury, primarily in the liver, and their putative therapeutic implications.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jun 5, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Review Article

Michael A Flierl, Daniel Rittirsch, Markus S Huber-Land, J Vidya Sarma, and Peter A Ward

Septic cardiomyopathy is a well-described complication of severe sepsis and
septic shock. However, the interplay of its underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. Flierl et al. (327-336) describe the present understanding of systemic, supracellular and molecular mechanisms involved in sepsis-induced myocardial suppression.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jun 4, 2008 12:00 AM CDT

Daniel P Kestler, James S Foster, Sallie D Macy, Charles L Murphy, Deborah T Weiss, and Alan Solomon

Odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein (ODAM) is highly expressed by mature ameloblasts and is present in the enamel organ and junctional epithelial cells of the teeth. In addition to the role of ODAM in odontogenesis, ODAM is upregulated in human cervical and gastric cancer. Kestler et al. (318-326) generated anti-ODAM antibodies to gain further insight into the potential role of ODAM in tissue development and carcinogenesis. The ODAM-specific antibodies recognize ODAM molecules in ameloblasts, as well as certain normal and neoplastic human epithelial tissues. The results indicate that ODAM is a developmental antigen with an essential role in tooth maturation as well as in the pathogenesis of certain odontogenic and other epithelial neoplasms. ODAM may serve as a prognostic biomarker and a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for patients with breast and other epithelial forms of cancer.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Jun 3, 2008 12:00 AM CDT
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