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Molecular Medicine 2015

Articles from this Volume

Nanako Kadono, Natsumi Hagiwara, Takashi Tagawa, Kenji Maekubo, and Yohei Hirai

In the skin epidermis, keratinocytes undergo anchorage-dependent cornification, which gives rise to stratified multilayers, each with a distinct differentiation feature. The active formation of the cornified cell envelope (CCE), an important element in the skin barrier, occurs in keratinocytes of the upper epidermal layers and impacts their terminal differentiation. In the present study, we identified the extracellularly extruded syntaxin-4 as a potent differentiation regulator of epidermal keratinocytes. We found that differentiation stimuli led to the acceleration of syntaxin-4 exposure at the keratinocyte cell surface and that the artificial control of extracellular syntaxin-4, either by the forced expression of several syntaxin-4 mutants with structural alterations at the putative functional core site (AIEPQK), or by using antagonistic circular peptides containing this core sequence, dramatically influenced the CCE formation, with spatial misexpression of TGase1 and involucrin. We also found that the topical application of a peptide that exerted the most prominent antagonistic activity for syntaxin-4, named ST4n1, evidently prevented the formation of the hyperplastic and hyperkeratotic epidermis generated by physical irritation in HR-1 mice skin. Collectively, these results demonstrate that extracellularly extruded syntaxin-4 is a potent regulator of CCE differentiation, and that ST4n1 has potential as a clinically applicable reagent for keratotic skin lesions.

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Posted by Sheila Platt on May 28, 2015 10:29 AM CDT
María Silvia Ventimiglia, Ana Clara Najenson, Juan Carlos Perazzo, Alejandro Carozzo, Marcelo S Vatta, Carlos A Davio, and Liliana G Bianciotti

We previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) stimulates secretin-evoked cAMP efflux through multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) in the exocrine pancreas. Here we sought to establish in vivo whether this mechanism was involved in acute pancreatitis onset in the rat. Rats pretreated with or without probenecid (MRPs general inhibitor) were infused with secretin alone or with ANF. A set of these animals were given repetitive cerulein injections to induce acute pancreatitis. Plasma amylase and intrapancreatic trypsin activities were measured and histological examination of the pancreas performed. Secretin alone activated trypsinogen but induced no pancreatic histological changes. Blockade by probenecid in secretin-treated rats increased trypsin and also induced vacuolization, a hallmark of acute pancreatitis. ANF prevented the secretin response but in the absence of probenecid. In rats with acute pancreatitis, pretreatment with secretin aggravated the disease, but ANF prevented secretin-induced changes. Blockade of MRPs in rats with acute pancreatitis induced trypsinogen activation and larger cytoplasmic vacuoles as well as larger areas of necrosis and edema that were aggravated by secretin but not prevented by ANF. The temporal resolution of intracellular cAMP levels seems critical in the onset of acute pancreatitis, since secretin-evoked cAMP in a context of MRP inhibition makes the pancreas prone to injury in normal rats and aggravates the onset of acute pancreatitis. Present findings support a protective role for ANF mediated by cAMP extrusion through MRP4 and further suggest that the regulation of MRP4 by ANF would be relevant to maintain pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis.

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Posted by Sheila Platt on May 26, 2015 3:09 PM CDT
Jiali Wang, Baoshan Liu, Hui Han, Qiuhuan Yuan, Mengyang Xue, Feng Xu, and Yuguo Chen

Although hyperglycemia is common in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Insulin signaling plays a key role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this study, we test the hypothesis that rapid alteration of insulin signaling pathways could be a potential contributor to acute hyperglycemia after MI. Male rats were used to produce MI by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were significantly higher in MI rats than those in controls. Insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) was reduced significantly in the liver tissue of MI rats compared with controls, followed by decreased attachment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85 subunit with IRS1 and Aktphosphorylation. However, insulin-stimulated signaling was not altered significantly in skeletal muscle after MI. The relative mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and G6Pase were slightly higher in the liver tissue of MI rats than those in controls. Rosiglitazone (ROSI) markedly restored hepatic insulin signaling, inhibited gluconeogenesis and reduced plasma glucose levels in MI rats. Insulin resistance develops rapidly in liver but not skeletal muscle after MI, which contributes to acute hyperglycemia. Therapy aimed at potentiating hepatic insulin signaling may be beneficial for MI-induced hyperglycemia.

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Posted by Sheila Platt on May 26, 2015 2:35 PM CDT
Nino Porakishvili, Ketki Vispute, Andrew J Steele, Nadeeka Rajakaruna, Nina Kulikova, Tamar Tsertsvadze, Amit Nathwani, Rajendra N Damle, Edward A Clark, Kanti R Rai, Nicholas Chiorazzi, and Peter M Lydyard

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) development and progression are thought to be driven by unknown antigens/autoantigens through the B cell receptor (BCR) and environmental signals for survival and expansion including toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. CD180/RP105, a membrane-associated orphan receptor of the TLR family, induces normal B cell activation and proliferation and is expressed by approximately 60% of CLL samples. Half of these respond to ligation with anti-CD180 antibody by increased activation/phosphorylation of protein kinases associated with BCR signaling. Hence CLL cells expressing both CD180 and the BCR could receive signals via both receptors. Here we investigated cross-talk between BCR and CD180-mediated signaling on CLL cell survival and apoptosis. Our data indicate that ligation of CD180 on responsive CLL cells leads to activation of either prosurvival Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK)/phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT-mediated, or proapoptotic p38 mitogenactivated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-mediated signaling pathways, while selective immunoglobulin M (sIgM) ligation predominantly engages the BTK/PI3K/AKT pathway. Furthermore, pretreatment of CLL cells with anti-CD180 redirects IgM-mediated signaling from the prosurvival BTK/PI3K/AKT toward the proapoptotic p38MAPK pathway. Thus preengaging CD180 could prevent further prosurvival signaling mediated via the BCR and, instead, induce CLL cell apoptosis, opening the door to therapeutic profiling and new strategies for the treatment of a substantial cohort of CLL patients.

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Posted by Sheila Platt on May 21, 2015 2:36 PM CDT
Enkui Hao, Partha Mukhopadhyay, Zongxian Cao, Katalin Erdélyi, Eileen Holovac, Lucas Liaudet, Wen-Shin Lee, György Haskó, Raphael Mechoulam, and Pál Pacher

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used, potent chemotherapeutic agent; however, its clinical application is limited because of its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. DOX’s cardiotoxicity involves increased oxidative/nitrative stress, impaired mitochondrial function in cardiomyocytes/endothelial cells and cell death. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychotropic constituent of marijuana, which is well tolerated in humans, with antioxidant, antiinflammatory and recently discovered antitumor properties. We aimed to explore the effects of CBD in a well-established mouse model of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. DOX-induced cardiomyopathy was characterized by increased myocardial injury (elevated serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels), myocardial oxidative and nitrative stress (decreased total glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase 1 activity, increased lipid peroxidation, 3-nitrotyrosine formation and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA), myocardial cell death (apoptotic and poly[ADP]-ribose polymerase 1 [PARP]-dependent) and cardiac dysfunction (decline in ejection fraction and left ventricular fractional shortening). DOX also impaired myocardial mitochondrial biogenesis (decreased mitochondrial copy number, mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, estrogen-related receptor alpha), reduced mitochondrial function (attenuated complex I and II activities) and decreased myocardial expression of uncoupling protein 2 and 3 and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA. Treatment with CBD markedly improved DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction, oxidative/nitrative stress and cell death. CBD also enhanced the DOX-induced impaired cardiac mitochondrial function and biogenesis. These data suggest that CBD may represent a novel cardioprotective strategy against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and the above-described effects on mitochondrial function and biogenesis may contribute to its beneficial properties described in numerous other models of tissue injury.

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Posted by Sheila Platt on May 12, 2015 12:30 PM CDT

Christian Hammer, Podchanart Wanitchakool, Lalida Sirianant, Sergi Papiol, Mathieu Monnheimer, Diana Faria, Jiraporn Ousingsawat, Natalie Schramek, Corinna Schmitt, Gabriele Margos, Angelika Michel, Peter Kraiczy, Michael Pawlita, Rainer Schreiber, Thomas F Schulz, Volker Fingerle, Hayrettin Tumani, Hannelore Ehrenreich, and Karl Kunzelmann

In a first genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach to anti-Borrelia seropositivity, we identified two significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs17850869, P = 4.17E-09; rs41289586, P = 7.18E-08). Both markers, located on chromosomes 16 and 3, respectively, are within or close to genes previously connected to spinocerebellar ataxia. The risk SNP rs41289586 represents a missense variant (R263H) of anoctamin 10 (ANO10), a member of a protein family encoding Cl– channels and phospholipid scramblases. ANO10 augments volume-regulated Cl– currents (IHypo) in Xenopus oocytes, HEK293 cells, lymphocytes and macrophages and controls volume regulation by enhancing regulatory volume decrease (RVD). ANO10 supports migration of macrophages and phagocytosis of spirochetes. The R263H variant is inhibitory on IHypo, RVD and intracellular Ca2 signals, which may delay spirochete clearance, thereby sensitizing adaptive immunity. Our data demonstrate for the first time that ANO10 has a central role in innate immune defense against Borrelia infection.

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Posted by Sheila Platt on May 7, 2015 1:55 PM CDT

Fei Yan, Guang-hao Zhang, Min Feng, Wei Zhang, Jia-ning Zhang, Wen-qian Dong, Cheng Zhang,Yun Zhang, Li Chen, and Ming-Xiang Zhang

Under high glucose conditions, endothelial cells respond by acquiring fibroblast characteristics, that is, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), contributing to diabetic cardiac fibrosis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has cardioprotective properties independent of its glucose-lowering effect. However, the potential mechanism has not been fully clarified. Here we investigated whether GLP-1 inhibits myocardial EndMT in diabetic mice and whether this is mediated by suppressing poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1). Streptozotocin diabetic C57BL/6 mice were treated with or without GLP-1 analog (24 nmol/kg daily) for 24 wks.Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to assess cardiac function. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were cultured in normal glucose (NG) (5.5 mmol/L) or high glucose (HG) (30 mmol/L) medium with or without GLP-1analog. Immunofluorescent staining and Western blot were performed to evaluate EndMT and PARP-1 activity. Diabetes mellitus attenuated cardiac function and increased cardiac fibrosis. Treatment with the GLP-1 analog improved diabetes mellitus–related cardiac dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that hyperglycemia markedly increased the percentage of von Willebrand factor (vWF)+/alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+ cells in total α-SMA+ cells in diabetic hearts compared with controls, which was attenuated by GLP-1 analog treatment. In cultured HAECs, immunofluorescent staining and Western blot also showed that both GLP-1 analog and PARP-1 gene silencing could inhibit the HG-induced EndMT. In addition, GLP-1 analog could attenuate PARP-1 activation by decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS).Therefore, GLP-1 treatment could protect against the hyperglycemia-induced EndMT and myocardial dysfunction. This effect is mediated, at least partially, by suppressing PARP-1 activation.

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Posted by Sheila Platt on May 7, 2015 12:57 PM CDT
Ciro Coletta, Katalin Módis, Bartosz Szczesny, Attila Brunyánszki, Gábor Oláh, Ester CS Rios,
Kazunori Yanagi, Akbar Ahmad, Andreas Papapetropoulos, and Csaba Szabo

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a reducing agent and an antioxidant molecule, exerts protective effects against hyperglycemic stress in the vascular endothelium. The mitochondrial enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) is an important biological source of H2S. We have recently demonstrated that 3-MST activity is inhibited by oxidative stress in vitro and speculated that this may have an adverse effect on cellular homeostasis. In the current study, given the importance of H2S as a vasorelaxant, angiogenesis stimulator and cellular bioenergetic mediator, we first determined whether the 3-MST/H2S system plays a physiological regulatory role in endothelial cells. Next, we tested whether a dysfunction of this pathway develops during the development of hyperglycemia and diabetes-associated vascular complications. Intraperitoneal (IP) 3-MP (1 mg/kg) raised plasma H2S levels in rats. 3-MP (10 μmol/L to 1 mmol/L) promoted angiogenesis in vitro in bEnd3 microvascular endothelial cells and in vivo in a Matrigel assay in mice (0.3–1 mg/kg). In vitro studies with bEnd3 cell homogenates demonstrated that the 3-MP-induced increases in H2S production depended on enzymatic activity, although at higher concentrations (1–3 mmol/L) there was also evidence for an additional nonenzymatic H2S production by 3-MP. In vivo, 3-MP facilitated wound healing in rats, induced the relaxation of dermal microvessels and increased mitochondrial bioenergetic function. In vitro hyperglycemia or in vivo streptozotocin diabetes impaired angiogenesis, attenuated mitochondrial function and delayed wound healing; all of these responses were associated with an impairment of the proangiogenic and bioenergetic effects of 3-MP. The antioxidants DL-α-lipoic acid (LA) in vivo, or dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) in vitro restored the ability of 3-MP to stimulate angiogenesis, cellular bioenergetics and wound healing in hyperglycemia and diabetes. We conclude that diabetes leads to an impairment of the 3-MST/H2S pathway, and speculate that this may contribute to the pathogenesis of hyperglycemic endothelial cell dysfunction. We also suggest that therapy with H2S donors, or treatment with the combination of 3-MP and lipoic acid may be beneficial in improving angiogenesis and bioenergetics in hyperglycemia.

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Posted by Sheila Platt on May 4, 2015 10:19 AM CDT
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