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I am not able to find the file with supplementary methods of the present paper. Can somebody help me to find it ?
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i could not find the supplementary data for this paper. please help me find them. thank you
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Articles from this Volume

Charles C Chu, Lu Zhang, Arjun Dhayalan, Briana M Agagnina, Amanda R Magli, Gia Fraher, Sebastien Didier, Linda P Johnson, William J Kennedy, Rajendra N Damle, Xiao-Jie Yan, Piers E M Patten, Saul Teichberg, Prasad Koduru, Jonathan E Kolitz, Steven L Allen, Kanti R Rai, and Nicholas Chiorazzi more...
Posted by Leah Caracappa on May 14, 2012 9:26 AM CDT
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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 15, 2011 12:00 AM CST
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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 14, 2011 12:00 AM CST
Review Article

Michał Kukla, Włodzimierz Mazur, Rafał J Bułdak, and Krystyna Zwirska-Korczala


Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is generally a slowly progressive disease, but some factors associated with rapid progression have been identified. Steatosis, independently of its metabolic or viral origin, leads to liver injury and fibrosis. It is suggested that hepatitis C virus may contribute to a wide spectrum of metabolic disturbances—namely, steatosis, insulin resistance, increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and lipid metabolism abnormalities. Adipokines, which are produced mainly by adipose tissue, may influence the inflammatory response and insulin sensitivity and contribute to the development of metabolic abnormalities in CHC and also regulate fibrogenesis and angiogenesis. Visfatin was described as an adipokine with immunomodulating and proinflammatory properties that promotes B-cell maturation and enhances activation of leukocytes, synthesis of adhesion molecules and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Visfatin exerts insulin-mimetic effects, decreases plasma glucose levels and regulates cell energy balance. Chemerin stimulates chemotaxis of dendritic cells, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells toward the site of inflammation. On the other hand, it inhibits synthesis of proinflammatory mediators and enhances adiponectin production, influences adipocyte differentiation and maturation and regulates glucose uptake in adipocytes. Vaspin expression in human adipose tissue seems to be a compensatory mechanism associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Vaspin suppresses leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-ooand resistin expression. Leptin protects against liver steatosis but accelerates fibrosis progression and exacerbates the inflammatory process. In contrast, adiponectin exerts a hepatoprotective effect. In this report, data indicating a possible role of these adipokines in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis are summarized.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 13, 2011 12:00 AM CST
Review Article

Ning Wang, Nan Shen, Timothy J Vyse, Vidya Anand, Iva Gunnarson, Gunnar Sturfelt, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Kerstin Elvin, Lennart Truedsson, Bengt A Andersson, Charlotte Dahle, Eva Örtqvist, Peter K Gregersen, Timothy W Behrens, and Lennart Hammarström

Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in Caucasians. It has previously been suggested to be associated with a variety of concomitant autoimmune diseases. In this review, we present data on the prevalence of IgAD in patients with Graves disease (GD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes (T1D), celiac disease (CD), myasthenia gravis (MG) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the basis of both our own recent large-scale screening results and literature data. Genetic factors are important for the development of both IgAD and various autoimmune disorders, including GD, SLE, T1D, CD, MG and RA, and a strong association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region has been reported. In addition, non-MHC genes, such as interferon-induced helicase 1 (IFIH1) and c-type lectin domain family 16, member A (CLEC16A), are also associated with the development of IgAD and some of the above diseases. This indicates a possible common genetic background. In this review, we present suggestive evidence for a shared genetic predisposition between these disorders.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 12, 2011 12:00 AM CST
Carlo Calissano, Rajendra N Damle, Sonia Marsilio, Xiao-Jie Yan, Sophia Yancopoulos, Gregory Hayes, Claire Emson, Elizabeth J Murphy, Marc K Hellerstein, Cristina Sison, Matthew S Kaufman, Jonathan E Kolitz, Steven L Allen, Kanti R Rai, Ivana Ivanovic, Igor M Dozmorov, Sergio Roa, Matthew D Scharff, Wentian Li, and Nicholas Chiorazzi

The failure of chemotherapeutic regimens to eradicate cancers often results from the outgrowth of minor subclones with more dangerous genomic abnormalities or with self-renewing capacity. To explore such intratumor complexities in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we measured B-cell kinetics in vivo by quantifying deuterium (2H)-labeled cells as an indicator of a cell that had divided. Separating CLL clones on the basis of reciprocal densities of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) and cluster designation 5 (CD5) revealed that the CXCR4dimCD5bright (proliferative) fraction contained more 2H-labeled DNA and hence divided cells than the CXCR4brightCD5dim (resting) fraction. This enrichment was confirmed by the relative expression of two cell cycle–associated molecules in the same fractions, Ki-67 and minichromosome maintenance protein 6 (MCM6). Comparisons of global gene expression between the CXCR4dimCD5bright and CXCR4brightCD5dim fractions indicated higher levels of pro-proliferation and antiapoptotic genes and genes involved in oxidative injury in the proliferative fraction. An extended immunophenotype was also defined, providing a wider range of surface molecules characteristic of each fraction. These intraclonal analyses suggest a model of CLL cell biology in which the leukemic clone contains a spectrum of cells from the proliferative fraction, enriched in recently divided robust cells that are lymphoid tissue emigrants, to the resting fraction enriched in older, less vital cells that need to immigrate to lymphoid tissue or die. The model also suggests several targets preferentially expressed in the two populations amenable for therapeutic attack. Finally, the study lays the groundwork for future analyses that might provide a more robust understanding of the development and clonal evolution of this currently incurable disease.

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Supplementary Data

Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 11, 2011 12:00 AM CST
Lasse Folkersen, Dick Wågsäter, Valentina Paloschi, Veronica Jackson, Johan Petrini, Sanela Kurtovic, Shohreh Maleki, Maria J Eriksson, Kenneth Caidahl, Anders Hamsten, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Jan Liska, Anders Gabrielsen, Anders Franco-Cereceda, and Per Eriksson

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a common complication in patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), the most frequent congenital heart disorder. For unknown reasons TAA occurs at a younger age, with a higher frequency in BAV patients than in patients with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV), resulting in an increased risk for aortic dissection and rupture. To investigate the increased TAA incidence in BAV patients, we obtained tissue biopsy samples from nondilated and dilated aortas of 131 BAV and TAV patients. Global gene expression profiles were analyzed from controls and from aortic intima-media and adventitia of patients (in total 345 samples). Of the genes found to be differentially expressed with dilation, only a few (<4%) were differentially expressed in both BAV and TAV patients. With the use of gene set enrichment analysis, the cell adhesion and extracellular region gene ontology sets were identified as common features of TAA in both BAV and TAV patients. Immune response genes were observed to be particularly overexpressed in the aortic media of dilated TAV samples. The divergent gene expression profiles indicate that there are fundamental differences in TAA etiology in BAV and TAV patients. Immune response activation solely in the aortic media of TAV patients suggests that inflammation is involved in TAA formation in TAV but not in BAV patients. Conversely, genes were identified that were only differentially expressed with dilation in BAV patients. The result has bearing on future clinical studies in which separate analysis of BAV and TAV patients is recommended.

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Supplementary Data

 
Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 10, 2011 12:00 AM CST
Zhe Dong, Tingting Wu, Weidong Qin, Chuankai An, Zhihao Wang, Mingxiang Zhang, Yun Zhang, Cheng Zhang, and Fengshuang An

Although serum amyloid A (SAA) is an excellent marker for coronary artery disease, its direct effect on atherogenesis in vivo is obscure. In this study we investigated the direct effect of SAA on promoting the formation of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient (ApoE–/–) mice. Murine SAA lentivirus was constructed and injected into ApoE–/– mice intravenously. Then, experimental mice were fed a chow diet (5% fat and no added cholesterol) for 14 wks. The aortic atherosclerotic lesion area was larger with than without SAA treatment. With increased SAA levels, the plasma levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly increased. Macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic regions was enhanced with SAA treatment. A migration assay revealed prominent dose-dependent chemotaxis of SAA to macrophages. Furthermore, the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was upregulated significantly with SAA treatment. SAA-induced VCAM-1 production was detected in human aortic endothelial cells in vitro. Thus, an increase in plasma SAA directly accelerates the progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE–/– mice. SAA is not only a risk marker for atherosclerosis but also an active participant in atherogenesis.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 9, 2011 12:00 AM CST
Meggan Mackay, Mathew P Bussa, Cynthia Aranow, Aziz M Ulug, Bruce T Volpe, Patricio T Huerta, Miklos Argyelan, Arthur Mandel, Joy Hirsch, Betty Diamond, and David Eidelberg

The mediators of tissue damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) such as antibodies, cytokines and activated immune cells have direct access to most organs in the body but must penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to gain access to brain tissue. We hypothesized that compromise of the BBB occurs episodically such that the brain will acquire tissue damage slowly and not at the same rate as other organs. On the basis of these assumptions, we wished to determine if duration of disease correlated with brain injury, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and if this was independent of degree of tissue damage in other organs. We investigated differences in brain activation patterns using fMRI in 13 SLE patients stratified by disease duration of ≤2 years (short-term [ST]) or ≥10 years (long-term [LT]). Two fMRI paradigms were selected to measure working memory and emotional response (fearful faces task). Performance in the working memory task was significantly better in the ST group for one and two shape recall; however, both groups did poorly with three shape recall. Imaging studies demonstrated significantly increased cortical activation in the ST group in regions associated with cognition during the two shape retention phase of the working memory task (P < 0.001) and increased amygdala (P < 0.05) and superior parietal (P < 0.01) activation in response to the fearful faces paradigm. In conclusion, analysis of activation patterns stratified by performance accuracy, differences in comorbid disease, corticosteroid doses or disease activity suggests that these observed differences are attributable to SLE effects on the central nervous system exclusive of vascular disease or other confounding influences. Our hypothesis is further supported by the lack of correlation between regional brain abnormalities on fMRI and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) damage index.

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Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 8, 2011 12:00 AM CST
Jian-Jun Yang, Yan-Lei Ma, Peng Zhang, Hong-Qi Chen, Zhi-Hua Liu, and Huan-Long Qin

Various biomarkers currently used for the diagnosis of intestinal mucosal injury (IMI) in patients with acute intestinal obstruction have low sensitivity and specificity. In the present study, IMI, as indicated by the impaired expression of tight junction proteins, including zonula occludens-1, occludin and claudin-1, and inflammation were determined in colonic tissues of patients with 45 strangulated intestinal obstruction (STR-IO) and the adjacent "normal" colonic tissues of 35 patients with colon cancers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR), Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and histological examination, respectively. Then, two-dimensional fluorescent difference gel electrophoresis coupled with linear trap quadrupole mass spectrometry was used to screen for potential biomarkers of IMI in the serum samples of 10 STR-IO, 10 simple intestinal obstruction (SIM-IO) and 10 normal healthy controls. A total of 35 protein spots were differentially expressed among the serum samples, and six of the proteins were identified as potential biomarkers. Among the six proteins, histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and ceruloplasmin (CP) were elevated significantly in patients with STR-IO, compared with patients with SIM-IO and healthy controls. Thus, HDC and CP were further validated by QRT-PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in colonic tissues, serum and urine samples. Finally, the receiver operating characteristic curves were used to show the area under the curves of HDC, CP and several established biomarkers, followed by the determination of the appropriate cutoff values and their sensitivities and specificities. It was shown that for serum and urine, HDC levels achieved sensitivities and specificities compatible to or even greater than those of established biomarkers for the diagnosis of IMI in patients with acute intestinal obstruction, although further validation in a larger cohort is required.

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Supplementary Data
Posted by Leah Caracappa on Dec 6, 2011 12:00 AM CST
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